FROM AJAY MISHRA AND OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO SO WHO IS MORE WRONG TRUMP OR KHAN AND BOLLYWOOD MOTHERFUCKERS ?

https://www.google.com/search?q=FROM+AJAY+MISHRA+AND+OLGA+SHULMAN+LEDNICHENKO+SO+WHO+IS+MORE+WRONG+TRUMP+OR+KHAN+AND+BOLLYWOOD+MOTHERFUCKERS+%3F&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjliozl2vzeAhWJPY8KHZjNCSkQ_AUIDigB&biw=1536&bih=754&dpr=1.25#imgdii=qf4dxJbNo_eAAM:&imgrc=WdrYsi404QNPXM:

TRUMP IS SOMEONE AJAY OPPOSES , BECAUSE OF ? BECAUSE OF OBAMA AND CLINTON. OTHERWISE, TRUMP HAS NOT DONE ANYTHING PERSONALLY AGAINST AJAY OR HIS LOVED ONES.. HAS HE? SHOW ME ONE EXAMPLE WHERE HE HAS ?

I WILL NAME UPTEEM EXAMPLES WHERE KHANS RUINED OUR LIVES .. AND U DANCED AND DINED WITH KHANS, .. DO U HAVE ANY REMORSE?

NO, AJAY WILL CONTINUE AGAINST TRUMP AND TRUMP CAN DO WHATEVER HE WANTS TO OR AGAINST AJAY – BUT KHANS GET CALELD WHAT BY BARACK ? AND U ? CLINTONS – WHAT DO U CALL BOLLYWOOD AS?

 

YOUR INABILITY OR UNWILLINGNESS TO SAY THE NAME – OF THE CULPRIT AND CONSOLE THE VICTIM IS MEANS IS – MEANS IS MEANS IS – CALELD APPSEAMENT WHICH – THE HINDU MAJORITY IN INDIA WANTS TO REJECT – AND THAT IS MEANS IS – MEANS IS MEANS IS CALELD VOTE BANK POLITICS AND IS MEANS IS MEANS IS MEANS IS CALED IDENITY POLITICIS – AND IN THIS CASE ITS CALELD IDENITY POLITICIS, EVEN ABOVE GOD – EVEN ABOVE YOUR BIGGETS SUPPORTER ON EARTH.. I DONT KNOW ANYONE WHO IS THIS WILLING TO FIGIHT FOR YOU..

DO U ?

OK, THEN HERE IS THE LEAST MEANS MINIMUM U CAN AND – SHOULD – DO.

U SHOULD – STOP SAYING SHIT – ON INDIA NOT JUTS STOP DANCING AND DINING AND PRIASING KHANS.. BUT JUS STOP SAYING SHIT ON – MODI OR INDIA – AND – U SHOULD REFLECT AS TO WHY MEANS REASON WHY – THERE IS A STRONG SHIFT TO THE RIGHT – IN MY VIEW 0 ITS BECAUSE OF YOUR OVER THE TOP, AT ANY CST EMBRACE OF THE DIFERENT – THE MINORITY.. BE IT – THE LECTURES U GIVE TO GERMAANY OR EUROPE ABOUT IMMIGRANTS – BTW THAT CAUSED ALL THIS AND BARACK IF  U HAD COTAINED SYRIA { I KNOW LIBYA WAS MORNIG AFTER BUT IS U HAD ] CONTAINED SYRIA THEN – MAYBE – JUST A MAYBE – GREECE WOULD HAVE NOT THAT MUCH OUT POURISNG OF REFUGEES AND GUESS WHAT AND ITS A MINOR BUT IMPORTANT POINT, THE MAHCO MADARCHOD KHANS 0 DID JUST TAT NA ITEM SONG WITH KATRINA I N GRECE , SAYING

 

WELL SAYING AND HERE IS THE LYRICS, WE WILL WELCOME U WITHA  SWAG AND ITS BECAUSE OF OUR CUOLTURE TO WELCOME EVERYONE AND THE REST

 

BARACK .. I KNOW U THINK U ARE VERY DEEP AND CEREBERAL AND BTW, I CHOSOE VEYR BAD ENGLISH AND GRAMEMR, PRECEIELY BECAUSE I WANT TO DEMONSTRATE THAT  LANGUAGE IS NO AS IMPORTNAT AS SUSBTACE – BUT ANYONE I HAVE MANY WOUNDS.. AND POINTS, BUT – YE.AH DSO U MAY THINK ALL YOU WANT AND CAN READ EDWARD SAID AND SAUL AND ALINSKLI AND GANDHI, BUT KHANS ARE VMEANS ARE POLITICIAL.. AND PERSONAL.. ND YES ITS OUSURPISE THAT IN SHALOM BOLLYOWOD, KHANS – BOYCOTTED NETANYAHU.. YEAH – BECAUSE – OF RLIGION..

 

RELIGIONS BASED ANYTHING INCLUDED RELIGIONS BASED MINORTY POLITICIS ALSO, NOT JUST RELIGIOUS BASED MANORITY POLITICS,. AND WELLM TRUMP DID JUST THAT – YS -W E CAN

 

AND YES WE CAN IS THE ITEM SONG OF ALL THE LACE WHERE U ARE DYING TO FIGURE OUT WHAT HAPPENED, HOW COME THIS SURGE IN NATIONALISM AND SHIFT TO THE RIGHT

 

Someone just viewed: OLLGA WHARS THEISE ? U WERE IN PLUS 92 EVAN ? TELL ME REGARDS HOTMAN

https://www.google.com/search?q=Someone+just+viewed:+OLLGA+WHARS+THEISE+%3F+U+WERE+IN+PLUS+92+EVAN+%3F+TELL+ME+REGARDS+HOTMAN&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi0k8PR1_zeAhVRVH0KHaJCBv0Q_AUIDygC&biw=1536&bih=754#imgdii=dSsDrcpLJombRM:&imgrc=c-n_yp_McgNg7M:

https://www.google.com/search?q=Someone+just+viewed:+OLLGA+WHARS+THEISE+%3F+U+WERE+IN+PLUS+92+EVAN+%3F+TELL+ME+REGARDS+HOTMAN&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi0k8PR1_zeAhVRVH0KHaJCBv0Q_AUIDygC&biw=1536&bih=754#imgdii=DCpQA6WFEMboaM:&imgrc=c-n_yp_McgNg7M:

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=Ia58Ly5fAUQ]

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=25qCzKPr_-E]

BUBBA, TELL BARACK – THIS IS SORTA IMPORTANNT.. MORE IMPORTNAT THAN SELFIES WITH ANGELINA JOLIE, BRAD PITT AND EVEN BEYONCE

Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

TO ALL FROM AJAY MISHRA – IE B 3 – AND O 3 – AND ? YEAH TAHTS ME IN THE CORNER.. BTW, DID ME SAY SIMPLE IS NOT SIMPLISTIC BARACK – DID ME SAY?

http://yoninetanyahu.com/2018/07/02/olga-obama-and-olga-sanjay-dutt-and-olga-and-who-which-clip-and-mishra-clinon-gig-it-is-sanjay-the-message-is-in-the-url/

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=WaBcoGsHAN0]

TO ALL FROM AJAY – WELL U KNOW MARIA SHARAPOVA AND AJAY MISHRA – ITEM SONG? – TW BARACK AND BIBI AND BUBB A – AND MODI AND HILLAYR JI -> MISHRA CLINTON CLIP IT IS – AND ? WELL AND KATRIN AAND CLIP AND U KNOW BOLLYWOOD MOTHERFUCKERS DO AND DID COPY OF NOT JUST APLOCALYOSPE NOW BUT ALSO OF GODFATEHR – WELL, BOLLYWOOD HAS HIGHER REACH SO THEY HAD KATRINA AFTER BOOM – WHICH MEANS MONICA LEWISKY AND THEN TIFFANY TAYLOR – TO PREITY ZINTA AND SALMAN KHAN AND AISHWARYA RAI – DAUGHTER OF AMITABH BACCHAN TO – ? YEAH – WHY SHOULD RUSSHIA BE LEFT ALONE WHEN IT ALL MEANS ALL MEANS ALL STARTED IIN A RUSHSIAN BATHROOM – ENJOY BOLLYWOOD HILLARY RODHMAN CLINTON JI – ENHJOY DIVERSITY – ENJOY MINORITY OUT EACHA ND BARACK OBAMA ENJOY – MUSLIM OUT REACH AT THE EXPENSE OF TOW PEOPLE WHO WSTILL WITH U – AND GAVE UP THEIR GODLEN YEARS OF LIFE – UNLIKE THOSE WHOM U DANCED AND DINED WITH SO HERE IS RUSSIA – AND CHINA AND USA – AND DUBAI AND MIDDLE EAST AND BOLLYWOOD AND KHANS AND NETANYAHU AND – WHO? http:

http://yoninetanyahu.com/2018/07/02/olga-obama-and-olga-sanjay-dutt-and-olga-and-who-which-clip-and-mishra-clinon-gig-it-is-sanjay-the-message-is-in-the-url/

OK MY MAN

ME FROM IIT CATGEORY, THE ENTIRE MOTHERFUCKING GOOGLE AND BAIDU AND VKONTATKE AND SHIT – NOTHING MEANS NOTHERJHING MEANS COHNE OR MANAFORT OF PADAD OR GREEK..

OK MAN –

WHATS MY NAME ?

WHATS MY NAME ?

WHATS MY NAME ?

http://yoninetanyahu.com/2018/07/02/olga-obama-and-olga-sanjay-dutt-and-olga-and-who-which-clip-and-mishra-clinon-gig-it-is-sanjay-the-message-is-in-the-url/

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Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO AND YONI NETANYAHU TO NATALIE PORT MAN AND BAR RAFELI AND BIBI NETANYAHU AND IDF -> SO, DID THE SEXY RUSSHAIN SOLDIER DO HER KARMA BEYOND ANYONE OF U MEANS BEHOND HINDUKUSH AND WHITE HOUSE ?

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From: Streak <notifications>
Date: Fri, Nov 30, 2018 at 10:54 PM
Subject: Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO AND YONI NETANYAHU TO NATALIE PORT MAN AND BAR RAFELI AND BIBI NETANYAHU AND IDF -> SO, DID THE SEXY RUSSHAIN SOLDIER DO HER KARMA BEYOND ANYONE OF U MEANS BEHOND HINDUKUSH AND WHITE HOUSE ?
To: <ajayinsead03>


Someone just viewed your email with the subject: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO AND YONI NETANYAHU TO NATALIE PORT MAN AND BAR RAFELI AND BIBI NETANYAHU AND IDF -> SO, DID THE SEXY RUSSHAIN SOLDIER DO HER KARMA BEYOND ANYONE OF U MEANS BEHOND HINDUKUSH AND WHITE HOUSE ?
Details
People on thread: YONI NETANYAHU OLGA BLOG POST BY EMAIL
Device: PC
Location: sydney, nsw

eyJlbWFpbF9pZCI6IlpNX3lBUUFCWjJXbXNxYkZxY1VEZVNuUllYR0MifQ==

TO OBAMA AND CLINTON FAMILY SINCE BIRTHDAY IS COMING AND SINCE ELECTIONS ARE OVER

 

 

SO AJAY IS NOT JUST A TRASH CAN AND AND SOME ANIMALS, AND SOME HUMANS, BUT EVEN A CLIP MAN?

AND OLGA IS NOT JUST HILLARY CLINTON AND MICHELLE OBAMA AND BAR RAFELI AND KATRINA KAIF AND SHYLA LOPEZ AND GANDHI’S WIFE AND SHIVA’S WIFE BUT ALSO – A PLACE HOLDER FOR OBAMA VERSUS RUSSHIA ON CRIYA MAN?

 

 

 

 

MIME-Version: 1.0
Date: Fri, 30 Nov 2018 22:53:08 +0530
Message-ID: <CAN1RVKuj_FZREDDBYCEXyoif3fM_rnvJBPmMKkBUiUFVDmPcgA@mail.gmail.com>
Subject: TO OBAMA AND CLINTON FAMILY SINCE BIRTHDAY IS COMING AND SINCE ELECTIONS ARE OVER
From: Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03@gmail.com>

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ISNT IT TIME TO REFLECT ON LIVES?
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ISNT IT TIME TO REFLECT ON LIVES?

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Someone just viewed: Re: Someone just viewed: ajay whars all theise whats this to do woth Olga – tell me all i asked regards hotman

https://www.google.com/search?q=Someone+just+viewed+your+email+with+the+subject:+Re:+Someone+just+viewed:+ajay+whars+all+theise+whats+this+to+do+woth+Olga+-+tell+me+all+i+asked+regards+hotman&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwirjq6izvzeAhULtY8KHbTPDdgQ_AUIDygC&biw=1536&bih=754#imgdii=4sFv1YWHzrzHLM:&imgrc=LeaxYWy3ijZ7BM:

Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

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Jul 2, 2018 – 登录由AVS-Images 免版税库存矢量图ID: 643361467 Gold metal paperclip isolated and attached to white paper SO, MISTER O – IE MR.

02 | July | 2018 | ln(2) = 6 9 and 8 = INFINITY: SO HILLARY JI: WHATS …


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Jul 2, 2018 – OLGA SANJAY DUTT – STEEL – WHATS THE ID ON THIS MRO ITEM. SO, OLGA – > SANJAY BHAI … 免版税库存矢量图ID: 643361467 …

SAME AND SIMILAR ARE NOT THE SAME : for starters – they even …


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OLGA SANJAY DUTT – STEEL – WHATS THE ID ON THIS MRO ITEM. SO, OLGA – > SANJAY BHAI -> WHICH IS THE … 免版税库存矢量图ID: 643361467 …

July | 2018 | ln(2) = 6 9 and 8 = INFINITY: SO HILLARY JI: WHATS …


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Jul 3, 2018 – WHAT HAPPENS WHEN 643361467 MRO IS FOUND. Posted on July 3, 2018 by OLGA SHULMAN ….. 免版税库存矢量图ID: 643361467 …

Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

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600 × 400 – May 15, 2018 – Katrina Kaif captured during rehearsals of Thugs of Hindustan. The much-awaited film of the year, Vijay Krishna Acharya’s Thugs of Hindostan, …

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Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

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Sincerely
Ajay

On Fri, Nov 30, 2018 at 8:58 PM Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03> wrote:

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Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: FROM AJAY MISHRA TO OBAMA AND SANJAY AND BILL AND HILLARY CLINTON JI -> U KNOW DECEMBER 25 MAY BE CALELD BIRTHDAY OR SOMETHING WHATS NEW YEAR CALLED IN PLUS 7 MAY I KNOW ?

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Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO CLNTON PARIVAR OBAMA PARIVAR AND NETANYAHU FAMILY AND MODI THE BHCELOR AND PUTIN THE RUSSHIAN ITS CALLED HOPE LUCKNOW AND NESHER

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Date: Fri, 30 Nov 2018 20:58:31 +0530
References: <ZM_yAQABZ2U5mkX8Rrj43Aspxv6p.1543591533@streak.com>
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Subject: Fwd: Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO CLNTON PARIVAR OBAMA PARIVAR AND NETANYAHU FAMILY AND MODI THE BHCELOR AND PUTIN THE RUSSHIAN ITS CALLED HOPE LUCKNOW AND NESHER
From: Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03@gmail.com>
To: YONI NETANYAHU OLGA BLOG POST
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https://www.google.com/search?q=3DFROM+OLGA+SHULMAN+LEDNICHENKO+TO+CLNTON+P=
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Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO CLNTON PARIVAR OBAMA PARIVAR AND NETANYAHU FAMILY AND MODI THE BHCELOR AND PUTIN THE RUSSHIAN ITS CALLED HOPE LUCKNOW AND NESHER

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Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO HILLARY CLINTON AJAY MISHRA IS LOW CLASS A JEW AND 3RD WORLD SHIT NOT AAMIR KHAN CATGEORY WHO KNOWS ON EDUCATION WHAT MORE CAN AJAY DO?

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Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO BARACK HUSIEN OBAMA AJAY IS NOT SHAHRUKH KHAN CATEGORY WHO OWNS THE WORD ROMANCE AND LOVE, CAN HE SHOCK THE FUCK OUT OF YOU BECAUSE U AND MICHELLE ARE THE MOST ROMANTIC ITEM SONGS ?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Date: Fri, 30 Nov 2018 20:40:28 +0530
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Subject: Fwd: Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO BARACK HUSIEN OBAMA AJAY IS NOT SHAHRUKH KHAN CATEGORY WHO OWNS THE WORD ROMANCE AND LOVE, CAN HE SHOCK THE FUCK OUT OF YOU BECAUSE U AND MICHELLE ARE THE MOST ROMANTIC ITEM SONGS ?
From: Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03@gmail.com>
To: YONI NETANYAHU OLGA BLOG POST BY EMAIL <loyi705jati@post.wordpress.com>
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Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

———- Forwarded message ———
From: Streak <notifications@streak.com>
Date: Fri, Nov 30, 2018 at 8:31 PM
Subject: Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO BARACK
HUSIEN OBAMA AJAY IS NOT SHAHRUKH KHAN CATEGORY WHO OWNS THE WORD ROMANCE
AND LOVE, CAN HE SHOCK THE FUCK OUT OF YOU BECAUSE U AND MICHELLE ARE THE
MOST ROMANTIC ITEM SONGS ?
To: <ajayinsead03@gmail.com>

<http://email.streak.com/e/c/eyJlbWFpbF9pZCI6IlpNX3lBUUFCWjJVakVaSE9RSFZFal= J2dGNUX04iLCJocmVmIjoiaHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuc3RyZWFrLmNvbT91dG1fY29udGVudD1UcmFja= 2VkVGhyZWFkRmlyc3RSZWFkK0VtYWlsXHUwMDI2dXRtX21lZGl1bT1lbWFpbF9hY3Rpb25cdTAw= MjZ1dG1fbmFtZT1BcHArVHJhbnNhY3Rpb25hbCstK1RyYWNrZWRUaHJlYWRGaXJzdFJlYWROb3R= pZmljYXRpb25cdTAwMjZ1dG1fc291cmNlPWN1c3RvbWVyLmlvIiwibGlua19pZCI6MTgwMTI4NT= MsInBvc2l0aW9uIjowfQ/ea6ad4a984c4960834944ce6c8af137ff4cf8da05e1648a14c5040= bf381a7833>
* Someone just viewed your email with the subject: FROM OLGA SHULMAN
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OWNS THE WORD ROMANCE AND LOVE, CAN HE SHOCK THE FUCK OUT OF YOU BECAUSE U
AND MICHELLE ARE THE MOST ROMANTIC ITEM SONGS ? *
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People on thread: YONI NETANYAHU OLGA BLOG POST BY EMAIL
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<b= r>
Thanks in Advance,=C2=A0
Sincerely
Aj=
ay=C2=A0

 

</div= >

 

—-=
—— Forwarded message ———
From: Streak <notifications@streak.com>
Date: Fr=
i, Nov 30, 2018 at 8:31 PM
Subject: Someone just viewed: FROM OLGA SHULM=
AN LEDNICHENKO TO BARACK HUSIEN OBAMA AJAY IS NOT SHAHRUKH KHAN CATEGORY WH=
O OWNS THE WORD ROMANCE AND LOVE, CAN HE SHOCK THE FUCK OUT OF YOU BECAUSE =
U AND MICHELLE ARE THE MOST ROMANTIC ITEM SONGS ?
To: <ajayinsead03@gmail.com>

<b= r>
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Someone just viewed your email with the subject: FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO BARACK HUSIEN OBAMA=
AJAY IS NOT SHAHRUKH KHAN CATEGORY WHO OWNS THE WORD ROMANCE AND LOVE, CAN=
HE SHOCK THE FUCK OUT OF YOU BECAUSE U AND MICHELLE ARE THE MOST ROMANTIC =
ITEM SONGS ?

=20

=20

=20

=20

=20
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Details
People on thread: YONI NETANYAHU OLGA BLOG POST BY EMAIL
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Device: Unknown Device
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Someone just viewed: Dream argument From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Dream of Life, by unknown Man nerist painter, ca. 1533 The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence th at the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that i s dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it i s in fact reality. Contents 1 Synopsis 2 Hutton’s paradox 3 Simulated reality 4 Critical discussion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References Synopsis Engraving of Descartes Part of a series on René Descartes Cartesianism · Rationalism Foundational ism Doubt and certainty Dream argument Cogito ergo sum Trademark argument Causal ad equacy principle Mind–body dichoto my Analytic geometry Coordinate system Cartesian circle · Folium Rule of signs · Cartesian diver Balloonist theory Wax argument Res cogitans · Res extensa Works

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https://www.google.com/search?q=Someone+just+viewed+your+email+with+the+subject:+Dream+argument+From+Wikipedia,+the+free+encyclopedia+The+Dream+of+Life,+by+unknown+Mannerist+painter,+ca.+1533+The+dream+argument+is+the+postulation+that+the+act+of+dreaming+provides+preliminary+evidence+that+the+senses+we+trust+to+distinguish+reality+from+illusion+should+not+be+fully+trusted,+and+therefore,+any+state+that+is+dependent+on+our+senses+should+at+the+very+least+be+carefully+examined+and+rigorously+tested+to+determine+whether+it+is+in+fact+reality.+Contents+1+Synopsis+2+Hutton%27s+paradox+3+Simulated+reality+4+Critical+discussion+5+See+also+6+Notes+7+References+Synopsis+Engraving+of+Descartes+Part+of+a+series+on+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes+Cartesianism+%C2%B7+Rationalism+Foundationalism+Doubt+and+certainty+Dream+argument+Cogito+ergo+sum+Trademark+argument+Causal+adequacy+principle+Mind%E2%80%93body+dichotomy+Analytic+geometry+Coordinate+system+Cartesian+circle+%C2%B7+Folium+Rule+of+signs+%C2%B7+Cartesian+diver+Balloonist+theory+Wax+argument+Res+cogitans+%C2%B7+Res+extensa+Works+The+World+Discourse+on+the+Method+La+G%C3%A9om%C3%A9trie+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy+Principles+of+Philosophy+Passions+of+the+Soul+People+Christina,+Queen+of+Sweden+Baruch+Spinoza+Gottfried+Wilhelm+Leibniz+Francine+Descartes+v+t+e+While+people+dream,+they+usually+do+not+realize+they+are+dreaming+(if+they+do,+it+is+called+a+lucid+dream).+This+has+led+philosophers+to+wonder+whether+one+could+actually+be+dreaming+constantly,+instead+of+being+in+waking+reality+(or+at+least+that+one+cannot+be+certain,+at+any+given+point+in+time,+that+one+is+not+dreaming).+In+the+West,+this+philosophical+puzzle+was+referred+to+by+Plato+(Theaetetus+158b-d)+and+Aristotle+(Metaphysics+1011a6).+Having+received+serious+attention+in+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%27+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy,+the+dream+argument+has+become+one+of+the+most+prominent+skeptical+hypotheses+which+clearly+has+an+archetype+in+elements+of+Plato%27s+Allegory+of+the+Cave+also.%5Bcitation+needed%5D+This+type+of+argument+is+well+known+as+%22Zhuangzi+dreamed+he+was+a+butterfly%22+(%E8%8E%8A%E5%91%A8%E5%A4%A2%E8%9D%B6+Zhu%C4%81ng+Zh%C5%8Du+m%C3%A8ng+di%C3%A9):+One+night,+Zhuangzi+(369+BC)+dreamed+that+he+was+a+carefree+butterfly,+flying+happily.+After+he+woke+up,+he+wondered+how+he+could+determine+whether+he+was+Zhuangzi+who+had+just+finished+dreaming+he+was+a+butterfly,+or+a+butterfly+who+had+just+started+dreaming+he+was+Zhuangzi.+This+was+a+metaphor+for+what+he+referred+to+as+a+%22great+dream%22:+He+who+dreams+of+drinking+wine+may+weep+when+morning+comes%3B+he+who+dreams+of+weeping+may+in+the+morning+go+off+to+hunt.+While+he+is+dreaming+he+does+not+know+it+is+a+dream,+and+in+his+dream+he+may+even+try+to+interpret+a+dream.+Only+after+he+wakes+does+he+know+it+was+a+dream.+And+someday+there+will+be+a+great+awakening+when+we+know+that+this+is+all+a+great+dream.+Yet+the+stupid+believe+they+are+awake,+busily+and+brightly+assuming+they+understand+things,+calling+this+man+ruler,+that+one+herdsman%E2%80%94how+dense!+Confucius+and+you+are+both+dreaming!+And+when+I+say+you+are+dreaming,+I+am+dreaming,+too.+Words+like+these+will+be+labeled+the+Supreme+Swindle.+Yet,+after+ten+thousand+generations,+a+great+sage+may+appear+who+will+know+their+meaning,+and+it+will+still+be+as+though+he+appeared+with+astonishing+speed.%5B1%5D+One+of+the+first+philosophers+to+posit+the+dream+argument+formally+was+the+Yogachara+Buddhist+philosopher+Vasubandhu+(fl.+4th+to+5th+century+C.E.)+in+his+%27Twenty+verses+on+appearance+only%27.+The+dream+argument+features+widely+in+Mahayana+Buddhist+and+Tibetan+Buddhist+thought.+Some+schools+of+thought+in+Buddhism+(e.g.,+Dzogchen),+consider+perceived+reality+%27literally%27+unreal.+As+a+prominent+contemporary+teacher,+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu,+puts+it:+%22In+a+real+sense,+all+the+visions+that+we+see+in+our+lifetime+are+like+a+big+dream+%5B…%5D%22.%5B2%5D+In+this+context,+the+term+%27visions%27+denotes+not+only+visual+perceptions,+but+appearances+perceived+through+all+senses,+including+sounds,+smells,+tastes+and+tactile+sensations,+and+operations+on+received+mental+objects.+Hutton%27s+paradox+A+paradox+concerning+dreams+and+the+nature+of+reality+was+described+by+the+British+writer+Eric+Bond+Hutton+in+1989.%5B3%5D+As+a+child+Hutton+often+had+lucid+dreams,+in+which+everything+seemed+as+real+as+in+waking+life.+This+led+him+to+wonder+whether+life+itself+was+a+dream,+even+whether+he+existed+only+in+somebody+else%27s+dream.+Sometimes+he+had+pre-lucid+dreams,+in+which+more+often+than+not+he+concluded+he+was+awake.+Such+dreams+disturbed+him+greatly,+but+one+day+he+came+up+with+a+magic+formula+for+use+in+them:+%22If+I+find+myself+asking+%27Am+I+dreaming%3F%27+it+proves+I+am,+for+the+question+would+never+occur+to+me+in+waking+life.%22+Yet,+such+is+the+nature+of+dreams,+he+could+never+recall+it+when+he+needed+to.+Many+years+later,+when+he+wrote+a+piece+about+solipsism+and+his+childhood+interest+in+dreams,+he+was+struck+by+a+contradiction+in+his+earlier+reasoning.+True,+asking+oneself+%22Am+I+dreaming%3F%22+in+a+dream+would+seem+to+prove+one+is.+Yet+that+is+precisely+what+he+had+often+asked+himself+in+waking+life.+Therein+lay+a+paradox.+What+was+he+to+conclude%3F+That+it+does+not+prove+one+is+dreaming%3F+Or+that+life+really+is+a+dream%3F+Simulated+reality+See+also:+Simulated+reality+and+Simulation+hypothesis+Dreaming+provides+a+springboard+for+those+who+question+whether+our+own+reality+may+be+an+illusion.+The+ability+of+the+mind+to+be+tricked+into+believing+a+mentally+generated+world+is+the+%22real+world%22+means+at+least+one+variety+of+simulated+reality+is+a+common,+even+nightly+event.%5B4%5D+Those+who+argue+that+the+world+is+not+simulated+must+concede+that+the+mind%E2%80%94at+least+the+sleeping+mind%E2%80%94is+not+itself+an+entirely+reliable+mechanism+for+attempting+to+differentiate+reality+from+illusion.%5B5%5D+%E2%80%9C+Whatever+I+have+accepted+until+now+as+most+true+has+come+to+me+through+my+senses.+But+occasionally+I+have+found+that+they+have+deceived+me,+and+it+is+unwise+to+trust+completely+those+who+have+deceived+us+even+once.+%E2%80%9D+%E2%80%94+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%5B6%5D+Critical+discussion+In+the+past,+philosophers+John+Locke+and+Thomas+Hobbes+have+separately+attempted+to+refute+Descartes%27s+account+of+the+dream+argument.+Locke+claimed+that+you+cannot+experience+pain+in+dreams.+Various+scientific+studies+conducted+within+the+last+few+decades+provided+evidence+against+Locke%27s+claim+by+concluding+that+pain+in+dreams+can+occur+but+the+pain+isn%27t+as+severe.+Philosopher+Ben+Springett+has+said+that+Locke+might+respond+to+this+by+stating+that+the+agonising+pain+of+stepping+in+to+a+fire+is+non-comparable+to+stepping+in+to+a+fire+in+a+dream.+Hobbes+claimed+that+dreams+are+susceptible+to+absurdity+while+the+waking+life+is+not.%5B7%5D+Many+contemporary+philosophers+have+attempted+to+refute+dream+skepticism+in+detail+(see,+e.g.,+Stone+(1984)).%5B8%5D+Ernest+Sosa+(2007)+devoted+a+chapter+of+a+monograph+to+the+topic,+in+which+he+presented+a+new+theory+of+dreaming+and+argued+that+his+theory+raises+a+new+argument+for+skepticism,+which+he+attempted+to+refute.+In+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge,+he+states:+%22in+dreaming+we+do+not+really+believe%3B+we+only+make-believe.%22%5B9%5D+Jonathan+Ichikawa+(2008)+and+Nathan+Ballantyne+%26+Ian+Evans+(2010)+have+offered+critiques+of+Sosa%27s+proposed+solution.+Ichikawa+argued+that+as+we+cannot+tell+whether+our+beliefs+in+waking+life+are+truly+beliefs+and+not+imaginings,+like+in+a+dream,+we+are+still+not+able+to+tell+whether+we+are+awake+or+dreaming.+Norman+Malcolm+in+his+monograph+%22Dreaming%22+(published+in+1959)+elaborated+on+Wittgenstein%27s+question+as+to+whether+it+really+mattered+if+people+who+tell+dreams+%22really+had+these+images+while+they+slept,+or+whether+it+merely+seems+so+to+them+on+waking%22.+He+argues+that+the+sentence+%22I+am+asleep%22+is+a+senseless+form+of+words%3B+that+dreams+cannot+exist+independently+of+the+waking+impression%3B+and+that+scepticism+based+on+dreaming+%22comes+from+confusing+the+historical+and+dream+telling+senses…%5Bof%5D…the+past+tense%22.+(page+120).+In+the+chapter:+%22Do+I+Know+I+Am+Awake+%3F%22+he+argues+that+we+do+not+have+to+say:+%22I+know+that+I+am+awake%22+simply+because+it+would+be+absurd+to+deny+that+one+is+awake.+See+also+Cartesian+doubt+Consensus+reality+Evil+demon+False+awakening+Maya+(illusion)+Multiverse+Reality+in+Buddhism+Social+simulation+Solipsism+Notes+%E8%8E%8A%E5%AD%90,+%E9%BD%8A%E7%89%A9%E8%AB%96,+12.+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+%22Discussion+on+making+all+things+equal,%22+12.+from+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+Burton+Watson+trans.,+Chuang+Tzu+(New+York:+Columbia+University+Press,+1996),+43.+ISBN+978-0-231-10595-8+%5B1%5D+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu+Dream+Yoga+And+The+Practice+Of+Natural+Light+Edited+and+introduced+by+Michael+Katz,+Snow+Lion+Publications,+Ithaca,+NY,+ISBN+1-55939-007-7,+pp.+42,+46,+48,+96,+105.+%22Adversaria+V,%22+Write+Justified,+Spring+1989.+For+Hutton%27s+definitive+statement+on+the+subject+see+%22Hutton%27s+Paradox,%22+Fortean+Times,+April+2015,+archived+online+here.+Joseph+Barbera,+Henry+Moller,+Dreaming,+Virtual+Reality,+and+Presence.+Giuliana+A.+L.+Mazzoni+and+Elizabeth+F.+Loftus,+When+Dreams+Become+Reality.+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes,+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy.+%22Dreaming,+Philosophy+of+%E2%80%93+Internet+Encyclopedia+of+Philosophy%22.+utm.edu.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+References+Ballantyne,+Nathan%3B+Evans,+Ian+(2010).+%22Sosa%27s+Dream%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+148+(2):+249%E2%80%93252.+doi:10.1007/s11098-008-9309-y.+Ichikawa,+Jonathan+(2008).+%22Skepticism+and+the+Imagination+Model+of+Dreaming%22.+The+Philosophical+Quarterly.+58+(232):+519%E2%80%93527.+doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.546.x.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22.+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Malcolm,+N.+(1959)+Dreaming+London:+Routledge+%26+Kegan+Paul,+2nd+Impression+1962.+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Philosophical+paradoxes+(list)+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Skepticism&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwify63LsfzeAhWMXisKHXZDCn0Q_AUIDigB&biw=1536&bih=754&dpr=1.25#imgdii=n4Wb0_IeJkHRCM:&imgrc=Wmz51fks0ziIrM:

https://www.google.com/search?q=Someone+just+viewed+your+email+with+the+subject:+Dream+argument+From+Wikipedia,+the+free+encyclopedia+The+Dream+of+Life,+by+unknown+Mannerist+painter,+ca.+1533+The+dream+argument+is+the+postulation+that+the+act+of+dreaming+provides+preliminary+evidence+that+the+senses+we+trust+to+distinguish+reality+from+illusion+should+not+be+fully+trusted,+and+therefore,+any+state+that+is+dependent+on+our+senses+should+at+the+very+least+be+carefully+examined+and+rigorously+tested+to+determine+whether+it+is+in+fact+reality.+Contents+1+Synopsis+2+Hutton%27s+paradox+3+Simulated+reality+4+Critical+discussion+5+See+also+6+Notes+7+References+Synopsis+Engraving+of+Descartes+Part+of+a+series+on+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes+Cartesianism+%C2%B7+Rationalism+Foundationalism+Doubt+and+certainty+Dream+argument+Cogito+ergo+sum+Trademark+argument+Causal+adequacy+principle+Mind%E2%80%93body+dichotomy+Analytic+geometry+Coordinate+system+Cartesian+circle+%C2%B7+Folium+Rule+of+signs+%C2%B7+Cartesian+diver+Balloonist+theory+Wax+argument+Res+cogitans+%C2%B7+Res+extensa+Works+The+World+Discourse+on+the+Method+La+G%C3%A9om%C3%A9trie+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy+Principles+of+Philosophy+Passions+of+the+Soul+People+Christina,+Queen+of+Sweden+Baruch+Spinoza+Gottfried+Wilhelm+Leibniz+Francine+Descartes+v+t+e+While+people+dream,+they+usually+do+not+realize+they+are+dreaming+(if+they+do,+it+is+called+a+lucid+dream).+This+has+led+philosophers+to+wonder+whether+one+could+actually+be+dreaming+constantly,+instead+of+being+in+waking+reality+(or+at+least+that+one+cannot+be+certain,+at+any+given+point+in+time,+that+one+is+not+dreaming).+In+the+West,+this+philosophical+puzzle+was+referred+to+by+Plato+(Theaetetus+158b-d)+and+Aristotle+(Metaphysics+1011a6).+Having+received+serious+attention+in+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%27+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy,+the+dream+argument+has+become+one+of+the+most+prominent+skeptical+hypotheses+which+clearly+has+an+archetype+in+elements+of+Plato%27s+Allegory+of+the+Cave+also.%5Bcitation+needed%5D+This+type+of+argument+is+well+known+as+%22Zhuangzi+dreamed+he+was+a+butterfly%22+(%E8%8E%8A%E5%91%A8%E5%A4%A2%E8%9D%B6+Zhu%C4%81ng+Zh%C5%8Du+m%C3%A8ng+di%C3%A9):+One+night,+Zhuangzi+(369+BC)+dreamed+that+he+was+a+carefree+butterfly,+flying+happily.+After+he+woke+up,+he+wondered+how+he+could+determine+whether+he+was+Zhuangzi+who+had+just+finished+dreaming+he+was+a+butterfly,+or+a+butterfly+who+had+just+started+dreaming+he+was+Zhuangzi.+This+was+a+metaphor+for+what+he+referred+to+as+a+%22great+dream%22:+He+who+dreams+of+drinking+wine+may+weep+when+morning+comes%3B+he+who+dreams+of+weeping+may+in+the+morning+go+off+to+hunt.+While+he+is+dreaming+he+does+not+know+it+is+a+dream,+and+in+his+dream+he+may+even+try+to+interpret+a+dream.+Only+after+he+wakes+does+he+know+it+was+a+dream.+And+someday+there+will+be+a+great+awakening+when+we+know+that+this+is+all+a+great+dream.+Yet+the+stupid+believe+they+are+awake,+busily+and+brightly+assuming+they+understand+things,+calling+this+man+ruler,+that+one+herdsman%E2%80%94how+dense!+Confucius+and+you+are+both+dreaming!+And+when+I+say+you+are+dreaming,+I+am+dreaming,+too.+Words+like+these+will+be+labeled+the+Supreme+Swindle.+Yet,+after+ten+thousand+generations,+a+great+sage+may+appear+who+will+know+their+meaning,+and+it+will+still+be+as+though+he+appeared+with+astonishing+speed.%5B1%5D+One+of+the+first+philosophers+to+posit+the+dream+argument+formally+was+the+Yogachara+Buddhist+philosopher+Vasubandhu+(fl.+4th+to+5th+century+C.E.)+in+his+%27Twenty+verses+on+appearance+only%27.+The+dream+argument+features+widely+in+Mahayana+Buddhist+and+Tibetan+Buddhist+thought.+Some+schools+of+thought+in+Buddhism+(e.g.,+Dzogchen),+consider+perceived+reality+%27literally%27+unreal.+As+a+prominent+contemporary+teacher,+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu,+puts+it:+%22In+a+real+sense,+all+the+visions+that+we+see+in+our+lifetime+are+like+a+big+dream+%5B…%5D%22.%5B2%5D+In+this+context,+the+term+%27visions%27+denotes+not+only+visual+perceptions,+but+appearances+perceived+through+all+senses,+including+sounds,+smells,+tastes+and+tactile+sensations,+and+operations+on+received+mental+objects.+Hutton%27s+paradox+A+paradox+concerning+dreams+and+the+nature+of+reality+was+described+by+the+British+writer+Eric+Bond+Hutton+in+1989.%5B3%5D+As+a+child+Hutton+often+had+lucid+dreams,+in+which+everything+seemed+as+real+as+in+waking+life.+This+led+him+to+wonder+whether+life+itself+was+a+dream,+even+whether+he+existed+only+in+somebody+else%27s+dream.+Sometimes+he+had+pre-lucid+dreams,+in+which+more+often+than+not+he+concluded+he+was+awake.+Such+dreams+disturbed+him+greatly,+but+one+day+he+came+up+with+a+magic+formula+for+use+in+them:+%22If+I+find+myself+asking+%27Am+I+dreaming%3F%27+it+proves+I+am,+for+the+question+would+never+occur+to+me+in+waking+life.%22+Yet,+such+is+the+nature+of+dreams,+he+could+never+recall+it+when+he+needed+to.+Many+years+later,+when+he+wrote+a+piece+about+solipsism+and+his+childhood+interest+in+dreams,+he+was+struck+by+a+contradiction+in+his+earlier+reasoning.+True,+asking+oneself+%22Am+I+dreaming%3F%22+in+a+dream+would+seem+to+prove+one+is.+Yet+that+is+precisely+what+he+had+often+asked+himself+in+waking+life.+Therein+lay+a+paradox.+What+was+he+to+conclude%3F+That+it+does+not+prove+one+is+dreaming%3F+Or+that+life+really+is+a+dream%3F+Simulated+reality+See+also:+Simulated+reality+and+Simulation+hypothesis+Dreaming+provides+a+springboard+for+those+who+question+whether+our+own+reality+may+be+an+illusion.+The+ability+of+the+mind+to+be+tricked+into+believing+a+mentally+generated+world+is+the+%22real+world%22+means+at+least+one+variety+of+simulated+reality+is+a+common,+even+nightly+event.%5B4%5D+Those+who+argue+that+the+world+is+not+simulated+must+concede+that+the+mind%E2%80%94at+least+the+sleeping+mind%E2%80%94is+not+itself+an+entirely+reliable+mechanism+for+attempting+to+differentiate+reality+from+illusion.%5B5%5D+%E2%80%9C+Whatever+I+have+accepted+until+now+as+most+true+has+come+to+me+through+my+senses.+But+occasionally+I+have+found+that+they+have+deceived+me,+and+it+is+unwise+to+trust+completely+those+who+have+deceived+us+even+once.+%E2%80%9D+%E2%80%94+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%5B6%5D+Critical+discussion+In+the+past,+philosophers+John+Locke+and+Thomas+Hobbes+have+separately+attempted+to+refute+Descartes%27s+account+of+the+dream+argument.+Locke+claimed+that+you+cannot+experience+pain+in+dreams.+Various+scientific+studies+conducted+within+the+last+few+decades+provided+evidence+against+Locke%27s+claim+by+concluding+that+pain+in+dreams+can+occur+but+the+pain+isn%27t+as+severe.+Philosopher+Ben+Springett+has+said+that+Locke+might+respond+to+this+by+stating+that+the+agonising+pain+of+stepping+in+to+a+fire+is+non-comparable+to+stepping+in+to+a+fire+in+a+dream.+Hobbes+claimed+that+dreams+are+susceptible+to+absurdity+while+the+waking+life+is+not.%5B7%5D+Many+contemporary+philosophers+have+attempted+to+refute+dream+skepticism+in+detail+(see,+e.g.,+Stone+(1984)).%5B8%5D+Ernest+Sosa+(2007)+devoted+a+chapter+of+a+monograph+to+the+topic,+in+which+he+presented+a+new+theory+of+dreaming+and+argued+that+his+theory+raises+a+new+argument+for+skepticism,+which+he+attempted+to+refute.+In+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge,+he+states:+%22in+dreaming+we+do+not+really+believe%3B+we+only+make-believe.%22%5B9%5D+Jonathan+Ichikawa+(2008)+and+Nathan+Ballantyne+%26+Ian+Evans+(2010)+have+offered+critiques+of+Sosa%27s+proposed+solution.+Ichikawa+argued+that+as+we+cannot+tell+whether+our+beliefs+in+waking+life+are+truly+beliefs+and+not+imaginings,+like+in+a+dream,+we+are+still+not+able+to+tell+whether+we+are+awake+or+dreaming.+Norman+Malcolm+in+his+monograph+%22Dreaming%22+(published+in+1959)+elaborated+on+Wittgenstein%27s+question+as+to+whether+it+really+mattered+if+people+who+tell+dreams+%22really+had+these+images+while+they+slept,+or+whether+it+merely+seems+so+to+them+on+waking%22.+He+argues+that+the+sentence+%22I+am+asleep%22+is+a+senseless+form+of+words%3B+that+dreams+cannot+exist+independently+of+the+waking+impression%3B+and+that+scepticism+based+on+dreaming+%22comes+from+confusing+the+historical+and+dream+telling+senses…%5Bof%5D…the+past+tense%22.+(page+120).+In+the+chapter:+%22Do+I+Know+I+Am+Awake+%3F%22+he+argues+that+we+do+not+have+to+say:+%22I+know+that+I+am+awake%22+simply+because+it+would+be+absurd+to+deny+that+one+is+awake.+See+also+Cartesian+doubt+Consensus+reality+Evil+demon+False+awakening+Maya+(illusion)+Multiverse+Reality+in+Buddhism+Social+simulation+Solipsism+Notes+%E8%8E%8A%E5%AD%90,+%E9%BD%8A%E7%89%A9%E8%AB%96,+12.+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+%22Discussion+on+making+all+things+equal,%22+12.+from+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+Burton+Watson+trans.,+Chuang+Tzu+(New+York:+Columbia+University+Press,+1996),+43.+ISBN+978-0-231-10595-8+%5B1%5D+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu+Dream+Yoga+And+The+Practice+Of+Natural+Light+Edited+and+introduced+by+Michael+Katz,+Snow+Lion+Publications,+Ithaca,+NY,+ISBN+1-55939-007-7,+pp.+42,+46,+48,+96,+105.+%22Adversaria+V,%22+Write+Justified,+Spring+1989.+For+Hutton%27s+definitive+statement+on+the+subject+see+%22Hutton%27s+Paradox,%22+Fortean+Times,+April+2015,+archived+online+here.+Joseph+Barbera,+Henry+Moller,+Dreaming,+Virtual+Reality,+and+Presence.+Giuliana+A.+L.+Mazzoni+and+Elizabeth+F.+Loftus,+When+Dreams+Become+Reality.+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes,+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy.+%22Dreaming,+Philosophy+of+%E2%80%93+Internet+Encyclopedia+of+Philosophy%22.+utm.edu.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+References+Ballantyne,+Nathan%3B+Evans,+Ian+(2010).+%22Sosa%27s+Dream%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+148+(2):+249%E2%80%93252.+doi:10.1007/s11098-008-9309-y.+Ichikawa,+Jonathan+(2008).+%22Skepticism+and+the+Imagination+Model+of+Dreaming%22.+The+Philosophical+Quarterly.+58+(232):+519%E2%80%93527.+doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.546.x.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22.+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Malcolm,+N.+(1959)+Dreaming+London:+Routledge+%26+Kegan+Paul,+2nd+Impression+1962.+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Philosophical+paradoxes+(list)+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Skepticism&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwify63LsfzeAhWMXisKHXZDCn0Q_AUIDigB&biw=1536&bih=754&dpr=1.25#imgdii=_KI_i3ufwSt4nM:&imgrc=JpHKwo50Il5BeM:

Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

Fwd: Someone just viewed: Dream argument From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Dream of Life, by unknown Mannerist painter, ca. 1533 The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality. Contents 1 Synopsis 2 Hutton’s paradox 3 Simulated reality 4 Critical discussion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References Synopsis Engraving of Descartes Part of a series on René Descartes Cartesianism · Rationalism Foundationalism Doubt and certainty Dream argument Cogito ergo sum Trademark argument Causal ad equacy principle Mind–body dichotomy Analytic geometry Coordinate system Cartesian circle · Folium Rule of signs · Cartesian diver Balloonist theory Wax argument Res cogitans · Res extensa Works Ajay Mishra 8:34 PM (1 minute ago) to YONI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPkEGAHo78o https://www.google.com/search?q=Someone+just+viewed+your+email+with+the+subject:+Dream+argument+From+Wikipedia,+the+free+encyclopedia+The+Dream+of+Life,+by+unknown+Mannerist+painter,+ca.+1533+The+dream+argument+is+the+postulation+that+the+act+of+dreaming+provides+preliminary+evidence+that+the+senses+we+trust+to+distinguish+reality+from+illusion+should+not+be+fully+trusted,+and+therefore,+any+state+that+is+dependent+on+our+senses+should+at+the+very+least+be+carefully+examined+and+rigorously+tested+to+determine+whether+it+is+in+fact+reality.+Contents+1+Synopsis+2+Hutton%27s+paradox+3+Simulated+reality+4+Critical+discussion+5+See+also+6+Notes+7+References+Synopsis+Engraving+of+Descartes+Part+of+a+series+on+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes+Cartesianism+%C2%B7+Rationalism+Foundationalism+Doubt+and+certainty+Dream+argument+Cogito+ergo+sum+Trademark+argument+Causal+adequacy+principle+Mind%E2%80%93body+dichotomy+Analytic+geometry+Coordinate+system+Cartesian+circle+%C2%B7+Folium+Rule+of+signs+%C2%B7+Cartesian+diver+Balloonist+theory+Wax+argument+Res+cogitans+%C2%B7+Res+extensa+Works+The+World+Discourse+on+the+Method+La+G%C3%A9om%C3%A9trie+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy+Principles+of+Philosophy+Passions+of+the+Soul+People+Christina,+Queen+of+Sweden+Baruch+Spinoza+Gottfried+Wilhelm+Leibniz+Francine+Descartes+v+t+e+While+people+dream,+they+usually+do+not+realize+they+are+dreaming+(if+they+do,+it+is+called+a+lucid+dream).+This+has+led+philosophers+to+wonder+whether+one+could+actually+be+dreaming+constantly,+instead+of+being+in+waking+reality+(or+at+least+that+one+cannot+be+certain,+at+any+given+point+in+time,+that+one+is+not+dreaming).+In+the+West,+this+philosophical+puzzle+was+referred+to+by+Plato+(Theaetetus+158b-d)+and+Aristotle+(Metaphysics+1011a6).+Having+received+serious+attention+in+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%27+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy,+the+dream+argument+has+become+one+of+the+most+prominent+skeptical+hypotheses+which+clearly+has+an+archetype+in+elements+of+Plato%27s+Allegory+of+the+Cave+also.%5Bcitation+needed%5D+This+type+of+argument+is+well+known+as+%22Zhuangzi+dreamed+he+was+a+butterfly%22+(%E8%8E%8A%E5%91%A8%E5%A4%A2%E8%9D%B6+Zhu%C4%81ng+Zh%C5%8Du+m%C3%A8ng+di%C3%A9):+One+night,+Zhuangzi+(369+BC)+dreamed+that+he+was+a+carefree+butterfly,+flying+happily.+After+he+woke+up,+he+wondered+how+he+could+determine+whether+he+was+Zhuangzi+who+had+just+finished+dreaming+he+was+a+butterfly,+or+a+butterfly+who+had+just+started+dreaming+he+was+Zhuangzi.+This+was+a+metaphor+for+what+he+referred+to+as+a+%22great+dream%22:+He+who+dreams+of+drinking+wine+may+weep+when+morning+comes%3B+he+who+dreams+of+weeping+may+in+the+morning+go+off+to+hunt.+While+he+is+dreaming+he+does+not+know+it+is+a+dream,+and+in+his+dream+he+may+even+try+to+interpret+a+dream.+Only+after+he+wakes+does+he+know+it+was+a+dream.+And+someday+there+will+be+a+great+awakening+when+we+know+that+this+is+all+a+great+dream.+Yet+the+stupid+believe+they+are+awake,+busily+and+brightly+assuming+they+understand+things,+calling+this+man+ruler,+that+one+herdsman%E2%80%94how+dense!+Confucius+and+you+are+both+dreaming!+And+when+I+say+you+are+dreaming,+I+am+dreaming,+too.+Words+like+these+will+be+labeled+the+Supreme+Swindle.+Yet,+after+ten+thousand+generations,+a+great+sage+may+appear+who+will+know+their+meaning,+and+it+will+still+be+as+though+he+appeared+with+astonishing+speed.%5B1%5D+One+of+the+first+philosophers+to+posit+the+dream+argument+formally+was+the+Yogachara+Buddhist+philosopher+Vasubandhu+(fl.+4th+to+5th+century+C.E.)+in+his+%27Twenty+verses+on+appearance+only%27.+The+dream+argument+features+widely+in+Mahayana+Buddhist+and+Tibetan+Buddhist+thought.+Some+schools+of+thought+in+Buddhism+(e.g.,+Dzogchen),+consider+perceived+reality+%27literally%27+unreal.+As+a+prominent+contemporary+teacher,+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu,+puts+it:+%22In+a+real+sense,+all+the+visions+that+we+see+in+our+lifetime+are+like+a+big+dream+%5B…%5D%22.%5B2%5D+In+this+context,+the+term+%27visions%27+denotes+not+only+visual+perceptions,+but+appearances+perceived+through+all+senses,+including+sounds,+smells,+tastes+and+tactile+sensations,+and+operations+on+received+mental+objects.+Hutton%27s+paradox+A+paradox+concerning+dreams+and+the+nature+of+reality+was+described+by+the+British+writer+Eric+Bond+Hutton+in+1989.%5B3%5D+As+a+child+Hutton+often+had+lucid+dreams,+in+which+everything+seemed+as+real+as+in+waking+life.+This+led+him+to+wonder+whether+life+itself+was+a+dream,+even+whether+he+existed+only+in+somebody+else%27s+dream.+Sometimes+he+had+pre-lucid+dreams,+in+which+more+often+than+not+he+concluded+he+was+awake.+Such+dreams+disturbed+him+greatly,+but+one+day+he+came+up+with+a+magic+formula+for+use+in+them:+%22If+I+find+myself+asking+%27Am+I+dreaming%3F%27+it+proves+I+am,+for+the+question+would+never+occur+to+me+in+waking+life.%22+Yet,+such+is+the+nature+of+dreams,+he+could+never+recall+it+when+he+needed+to.+Many+years+later,+when+he+wrote+a+piece+about+solipsism+and+his+childhood+interest+in+dreams,+he+was+struck+by+a+contradiction+in+his+earlier+reasoning.+True,+asking+oneself+%22Am+I+dreaming%3F%22+in+a+dream+would+seem+to+prove+one+is.+Yet+that+is+precisely+what+he+had+often+asked+himself+in+waking+life.+Therein+lay+a+paradox.+What+was+he+to+conclude%3F+That+it+does+not+prove+one+is+dreaming%3F+Or+that+life+really+is+a+dream%3F+Simulated+reality+See+also:+Simulated+reality+and+Simulation+hypothesis+Dreaming+provides+a+springboard+for+those+who+question+whether+our+own+reality+may+be+an+illusion.+The+ability+of+the+mind+to+be+tricked+into+believing+a+mentally+generated+world+is+the+%22real+world%22+means+at+least+one+variety+of+simulated+reality+is+a+common,+even+nightly+event.%5B4%5D+Those+who+argue+that+the+world+is+not+simulated+must+concede+that+the+mind%E2%80%94at+least+the+sleeping+mind%E2%80%94is+not+itself+an+entirely+reliable+mechanism+for+attempting+to+differentiate+reality+from+illusion.%5B5%5D+%E2%80%9C+Whatever+I+have+accepted+until+now+as+most+true+has+come+to+me+through+my+senses.+But+occasionally+I+have+found+that+they+have+deceived+me,+and+it+is+unwise+to+trust+completely+those+who+have+deceived+us+even+once.+%E2%80%9D+%E2%80%94+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%5B6%5D+Critical+discussion+In+the+past,+philosophers+John+Locke+and+Thomas+Hobbes+have+separately+attempted+to+refute+Descartes%27s+account+of+the+dream+argument.+Locke+claimed+that+you+cannot+experience+pain+in+dreams.+Various+scientific+studies+conducted+within+the+last+few+decades+provided+evidence+against+Locke%27s+claim+by+concluding+that+pain+in+dreams+can+occur+but+the+pain+isn%27t+as+severe.+Philosopher+Ben+Springett+has+said+that+Locke+might+respond+to+this+by+stating+that+the+agonising+pain+of+stepping+in+to+a+fire+is+non-comparable+to+stepping+in+to+a+fire+in+a+dream.+Hobbes+claimed+that+dreams+are+susceptible+to+absurdity+while+the+waking+life+is+not.%5B7%5D+Many+contemporary+philosophers+have+attempted+to+refute+dream+skepticism+in+detail+(see,+e.g.,+Stone+(1984)).%5B8%5D+Ernest+Sosa+(2007)+devoted+a+chapter+of+a+monograph+to+the+topic,+in+which+he+presented+a+new+theory+of+dreaming+and+argued+that+his+theory+raises+a+new+argument+for+skepticism,+which+he+attempted+to+refute.+In+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge,+he+states:+%22in+dreaming+we+do+not+really+believe%3B+we+only+make-believe.%22%5B9%5D+Jonathan+Ichikawa+(2008)+and+Nathan+Ballantyne+%26+Ian+Evans+(2010)+have+offered+critiques+of+Sosa%27s+proposed+solution.+Ichikawa+argued+that+as+we+cannot+tell+whether+our+beliefs+in+waking+life+are+truly+beliefs+and+not+imaginings,+like+in+a+dream,+we+are+still+not+able+to+tell+whether+we+are+awake+or+dreaming.+Norman+Malcolm+in+his+monograph+%22Dreaming%22+(published+in+1959)+elaborated+on+Wittgenstein%27s+question+as+to+whether+it+really+mattered+if+people+who+tell+dreams+%22really+had+these+images+while+they+slept,+or+whether+it+merely+seems+so+to+them+on+waking%22.+He+argues+that+the+sentence+%22I+am+asleep%22+is+a+senseless+form+of+words%3B+that+dreams+cannot+exist+independently+of+the+waking+impression%3B+and+that+scepticism+based+on+dreaming+%22comes+from+confusing+the+historical+and+dream+telling+senses…%5Bof%5D…the+past+tense%22.+(page+120).+In+the+chapter:+%22Do+I+Know+I+Am+Awake+%3F%22+he+argues+that+we+do+not+have+to+say:+%22I+know+that+I+am+awake%22+simply+because+it+would+be+absurd+to+deny+that+one+is+awake.+See+also+Cartesian+doubt+Consensus+reality+Evil+demon+False+awakening+Maya+(illusion)+Multiverse+Reality+in+Buddhism+Social+simulation+Solipsism+Notes+%E8%8E%8A%E5%AD%90,+%E9%BD%8A%E7%89%A9%E8%AB%96,+12.+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+%22Discussion+on+making+all+things+equal,%22+12.+from+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+Burton+Watson+trans.,+Chuang+Tzu+(New+York:+Columbia+University+Press,+1996),+43.+ISBN+978-0-231-10595-8+%5B1%5D+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu+Dream+Yoga+And+The+Practice+Of+Natural+Light+Edited+and+introduced+by+Michael+Katz,+Snow+Lion+Publications,+Ithaca,+NY,+ISBN+1-55939-007-7,+pp.+42,+46,+48,+96,+105.+%22Adversaria+V,%22+Write+Justified,+Spring+1989.+For+Hutton%27s+definitive+statement+on+the+subject+see+%22Hutton%27s+Paradox,%22+Fortean+Times,+April+2015,+archived+online+here.+Joseph+Barbera,+Henry+Moller,+Dreaming,+Virtual+Reality,+and+Presence.+Giuliana+A.+L.+Mazzoni+and+Elizabeth+F.+Loftus,+When+Dreams+Become+Reality.+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes,+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy.+%22Dreaming,+Philosophy+of+%E2%80%93+Internet+Encyclopedia+of+Philosophy%22.+utm.edu.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+References+Ballantyne,+Nathan%3B+Evans,+Ian+(2010).+%22Sosa%27s+Dream%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+148+(2):+249%E2%80%93252.+doi:10.1007/s11098-008-9309-y.+Ichikawa,+Jonathan+(2008).+%22Skepticism+and+the+Imagination+Model+of+Dreaming%22.+The+Philosophical+Quarterly.+58+(232):+519%E2%80%93527.+doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.546.x.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22.+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Malcolm,+N.+(1959)+Dreaming+London:+Routledge+%26+Kegan+Paul,+2nd+Impression+1962.+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Philosophical+paradoxes+(list)+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Skepticism&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwify63LsfzeAhWMXisKHXZDCn0Q_AUIDigB&biw=1536&bih=754&dpr=1.25#imgdii=n4Wb0_IeJkHRCM:&imgrc=Wmz51fks0ziIrM: image.png https://www.google.com/search?q=Someone+just+viewed+your+email+with+the+subject:+Dream+argument+From+Wikipedia,+the+free+encyclopedia+The+Dream+of+Life,+by+unknown+Mannerist+painter,+ca.+1533+The+dream+argument+is+the+postulation+that+the+act+of+dreaming+provides+preliminary+evidence+that+the+senses+we+trust+to+distinguish+reality+from+illusion+should+not+be+fully+trusted,+and+therefore,+any+state+that+is+dependent+on+our+senses+should+at+the+very+least+be+carefully+examined+and+rigorously+tested+to+determine+whether+it+is+in+fact+reality.+Contents+1+Synopsis+2+Hutton%27s+paradox+3+Simulated+reality+4+Critical+discussion+5+See+also+6+Notes+7+References+Synopsis+Engraving+of+Descartes+Part+of+a+series+on+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes+Cartesianism+%C2%B7+Rationalism+Foundationalism+Doubt+and+certainty+Dream+argument+Cogito+ergo+sum+Trademark+argument+Causal+adequacy+principle+Mind%E2%80%93body+dichotomy+Analytic+geometry+Coordinate+system+Cartesian+circle+%C2%B7+Folium+Rule+of+signs+%C2%B7+Cartesian+diver+Balloonist+theory+Wax+argument+Res+cogitans+%C2%B7+Res+extensa+Works+The+World+Discourse+on+the+Method+La+G%C3%A9om%C3%A9trie+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy+Principles+of+Philosophy+Passions+of+the+Soul+People+Christina,+Queen+of+Sweden+Baruch+Spinoza+Gottfried+Wilhelm+Leibniz+Francine+Descartes+v+t+e+While+people+dream,+they+usually+do+not+realize+they+are+dreaming+(if+they+do,+it+is+called+a+lucid+dream).+This+has+led+philosophers+to+wonder+whether+one+could+actually+be+dreaming+constantly,+instead+of+being+in+waking+reality+(or+at+least+that+one+cannot+be+certain,+at+any+given+point+in+time,+that+one+is+not+dreaming).+In+the+West,+this+philosophical+puzzle+was+referred+to+by+Plato+(Theaetetus+158b-d)+and+Aristotle+(Metaphysics+1011a6).+Having+received+serious+attention+in+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%27+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy,+the+dream+argument+has+become+one+of+the+most+prominent+skeptical+hypotheses+which+clearly+has+an+archetype+in+elements+of+Plato%27s+Allegory+of+the+Cave+also.%5Bcitation+needed%5D+This+type+of+argument+is+well+known+as+%22Zhuangzi+dreamed+he+was+a+butterfly%22+(%E8%8E%8A%E5%91%A8%E5%A4%A2%E8%9D%B6+Zhu%C4%81ng+Zh%C5%8Du+m%C3%A8ng+di%C3%A9):+One+night,+Zhuangzi+(369+BC)+dreamed+that+he+was+a+carefree+butterfly,+flying+happily.+After+he+woke+up,+he+wondered+how+he+could+determine+whether+he+was+Zhuangzi+who+had+just+finished+dreaming+he+was+a+butterfly,+or+a+butterfly+who+had+just+started+dreaming+he+was+Zhuangzi.+This+was+a+metaphor+for+what+he+referred+to+as+a+%22great+dream%22:+He+who+dreams+of+drinking+wine+may+weep+when+morning+comes%3B+he+who+dreams+of+weeping+may+in+the+morning+go+off+to+hunt.+While+he+is+dreaming+he+does+not+know+it+is+a+dream,+and+in+his+dream+he+may+even+try+to+interpret+a+dream.+Only+after+he+wakes+does+he+know+it+was+a+dream.+And+someday+there+will+be+a+great+awakening+when+we+know+that+this+is+all+a+great+dream.+Yet+the+stupid+believe+they+are+awake,+busily+and+brightly+assuming+they+understand+things,+calling+this+man+ruler,+that+one+herdsman%E2%80%94how+dense!+Confucius+and+you+are+both+dreaming!+And+when+I+say+you+are+dreaming,+I+am+dreaming,+too.+Words+like+these+will+be+labeled+the+Supreme+Swindle.+Yet,+after+ten+thousand+generations,+a+great+sage+may+appear+who+will+know+their+meaning,+and+it+will+still+be+as+though+he+appeared+with+astonishing+speed.%5B1%5D+One+of+the+first+philosophers+to+posit+the+dream+argument+formally+was+the+Yogachara+Buddhist+philosopher+Vasubandhu+(fl.+4th+to+5th+century+C.E.)+in+his+%27Twenty+verses+on+appearance+only%27.+The+dream+argument+features+widely+in+Mahayana+Buddhist+and+Tibetan+Buddhist+thought.+Some+schools+of+thought+in+Buddhism+(e.g.,+Dzogchen),+consider+perceived+reality+%27literally%27+unreal.+As+a+prominent+contemporary+teacher,+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu,+puts+it:+%22In+a+real+sense,+all+the+visions+that+we+see+in+our+lifetime+are+like+a+big+dream+%5B…%5D%22.%5B2%5D+In+this+context,+the+term+%27visions%27+denotes+not+only+visual+perceptions,+but+appearances+perceived+through+all+senses,+including+sounds,+smells,+tastes+and+tactile+sensations,+and+operations+on+received+mental+objects.+Hutton%27s+paradox+A+paradox+concerning+dreams+and+the+nature+of+reality+was+described+by+the+British+writer+Eric+Bond+Hutton+in+1989.%5B3%5D+As+a+child+Hutton+often+had+lucid+dreams,+in+which+everything+seemed+as+real+as+in+waking+life.+This+led+him+to+wonder+whether+life+itself+was+a+dream,+even+whether+he+existed+only+in+somebody+else%27s+dream.+Sometimes+he+had+pre-lucid+dreams,+in+which+more+often+than+not+he+concluded+he+was+awake.+Such+dreams+disturbed+him+greatly,+but+one+day+he+came+up+with+a+magic+formula+for+use+in+them:+%22If+I+find+myself+asking+%27Am+I+dreaming%3F%27+it+proves+I+am,+for+the+question+would+never+occur+to+me+in+waking+life.%22+Yet,+such+is+the+nature+of+dreams,+he+could+never+recall+it+when+he+needed+to.+Many+years+later,+when+he+wrote+a+piece+about+solipsism+and+his+childhood+interest+in+dreams,+he+was+struck+by+a+contradiction+in+his+earlier+reasoning.+True,+asking+oneself+%22Am+I+dreaming%3F%22+in+a+dream+would+seem+to+prove+one+is.+Yet+that+is+precisely+what+he+had+often+asked+himself+in+waking+life.+Therein+lay+a+paradox.+What+was+he+to+conclude%3F+That+it+does+not+prove+one+is+dreaming%3F+Or+that+life+really+is+a+dream%3F+Simulated+reality+See+also:+Simulated+reality+and+Simulation+hypothesis+Dreaming+provides+a+springboard+for+those+who+question+whether+our+own+reality+may+be+an+illusion.+The+ability+of+the+mind+to+be+tricked+into+believing+a+mentally+generated+world+is+the+%22real+world%22+means+at+least+one+variety+of+simulated+reality+is+a+common,+even+nightly+event.%5B4%5D+Those+who+argue+that+the+world+is+not+simulated+must+concede+that+the+mind%E2%80%94at+least+the+sleeping+mind%E2%80%94is+not+itself+an+entirely+reliable+mechanism+for+attempting+to+differentiate+reality+from+illusion.%5B5%5D+%E2%80%9C+Whatever+I+have+accepted+until+now+as+most+true+has+come+to+me+through+my+senses.+But+occasionally+I+have+found+that+they+have+deceived+me,+and+it+is+unwise+to+trust+completely+those+who+have+deceived+us+even+once.+%E2%80%9D+%E2%80%94+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%5B6%5D+Critical+discussion+In+the+past,+philosophers+John+Locke+and+Thomas+Hobbes+have+separately+attempted+to+refute+Descartes%27s+account+of+the+dream+argument.+Locke+claimed+that+you+cannot+experience+pain+in+dreams.+Various+scientific+studies+conducted+within+the+last+few+decades+provided+evidence+against+Locke%27s+claim+by+concluding+that+pain+in+dreams+can+occur+but+the+pain+isn%27t+as+severe.+Philosopher+Ben+Springett+has+said+that+Locke+might+respond+to+this+by+stating+that+the+agonising+pain+of+stepping+in+to+a+fire+is+non-comparable+to+stepping+in+to+a+fire+in+a+dream.+Hobbes+claimed+that+dreams+are+susceptible+to+absurdity+while+the+waking+life+is+not.%5B7%5D+Many+contemporary+philosophers+have+attempted+to+refute+dream+skepticism+in+detail+(see,+e.g.,+Stone+(1984)).%5B8%5D+Ernest+Sosa+(2007)+devoted+a+chapter+of+a+monograph+to+the+topic,+in+which+he+presented+a+new+theory+of+dreaming+and+argued+that+his+theory+raises+a+new+argument+for+skepticism,+which+he+attempted+to+refute.+In+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge,+he+states:+%22in+dreaming+we+do+not+really+believe%3B+we+only+make-believe.%22%5B9%5D+Jonathan+Ichikawa+(2008)+and+Nathan+Ballantyne+%26+Ian+Evans+(2010)+have+offered+critiques+of+Sosa%27s+proposed+solution.+Ichikawa+argued+that+as+we+cannot+tell+whether+our+beliefs+in+waking+life+are+truly+beliefs+and+not+imaginings,+like+in+a+dream,+we+are+still+not+able+to+tell+whether+we+are+awake+or+dreaming.+Norman+Malcolm+in+his+monograph+%22Dreaming%22+(published+in+1959)+elaborated+on+Wittgenstein%27s+question+as+to+whether+it+really+mattered+if+people+who+tell+dreams+%22really+had+these+images+while+they+slept,+or+whether+it+merely+seems+so+to+them+on+waking%22.+He+argues+that+the+sentence+%22I+am+asleep%22+is+a+senseless+form+of+words%3B+that+dreams+cannot+exist+independently+of+the+waking+impression%3B+and+that+scepticism+based+on+dreaming+%22comes+from+confusing+the+historical+and+dream+telling+senses…%5Bof%5D…the+past+tense%22.+(page+120).+In+the+chapter:+%22Do+I+Know+I+Am+Awake+%3F%22+he+argues+that+we+do+not+have+to+say:+%22I+know+that+I+am+awake%22+simply+because+it+would+be+absurd+to+deny+that+one+is+awake.+See+also+Cartesian+doubt+Consensus+reality+Evil+demon+False+awakening+Maya+(illusion)+Multiverse+Reality+in+Buddhism+Social+simulation+Solipsism+Notes+%E8%8E%8A%E5%AD%90,+%E9%BD%8A%E7%89%A9%E8%AB%96,+12.+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+%22Discussion+on+making+all+things+equal,%22+12.+from+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+Burton+Watson+trans.,+Chuang+Tzu+(New+York:+Columbia+University+Press,+1996),+43.+ISBN+978-0-231-10595-8+%5B1%5D+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu+Dream+Yoga+And+The+Practice+Of+Natural+Light+Edited+and+introduced+by+Michael+Katz,+Snow+Lion+Publications,+Ithaca,+NY,+ISBN+1-55939-007-7,+pp.+42,+46,+48,+96,+105.+%22Adversaria+V,%22+Write+Justified,+Spring+1989.+For+Hutton%27s+definitive+statement+on+the+subject+see+%22Hutton%27s+Paradox,%22+Fortean+Times,+April+2015,+archived+online+here.+Joseph+Barbera,+Henry+Moller,+Dreaming,+Virtual+Reality,+and+Presence.+Giuliana+A.+L.+Mazzoni+and+Elizabeth+F.+Loftus,+When+Dreams+Become+Reality.+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes,+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy.+%22Dreaming,+Philosophy+of+%E2%80%93+Internet+Encyclopedia+of+Philosophy%22.+utm.edu.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+References+Ballantyne,+Nathan%3B+Evans,+Ian+(2010).+%22Sosa%27s+Dream%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+148+(2):+249%E2%80%93252.+doi:10.1007/s11098-008-9309-y.+Ichikawa,+Jonathan+(2008).+%22Skepticism+and+the+Imagination+Model+of+Dreaming%22.+The+Philosophical+Quarterly.+58+(232):+519%E2%80%93527.+doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.546.x.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22.+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Malcolm,+N.+(1959)+Dreaming+London:+Routledge+%26+Kegan+Paul,+2nd+Impression+1962.+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Philosophical+paradoxes+(list)+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Skepticism&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwify63LsfzeAhWMXisKHXZDCn0Q_AUIDigB&biw=1536&bih=754&dpr=1.25#imgdii=_KI_i3ufwSt4nM:&imgrc=JpHKwo50Il5BeM: Thanks in Advance, Sincerely Ajay ———- Forwarded message ——— From: Streak Date: Fri, Nov 30, 2018 at 8:29 PM Subject: Someone just viewed: Dream argument From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Dream of Life, by unknown Mannerist painter, ca. 1533 The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality. Contents 1 Synopsis 2 Hutton’s paradox 3 Simulated reality 4 Critical discussion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References Synopsis Engraving of Descartes Part of a series on René Descartes Cartesianism · Rationalism Foundationalism Doubt and certainty Dream argument Cogito ergo sum Trademark argument Causal ad equacy principle Mind–body dichotomy Analytic geometry Coordinate system Cartesian circle · Folium Rule of signs · Cartesian diver Balloonist theory Wax argument Res cogitans · Res extensa Works Th To: Someone just viewed your email with the subject: Dream argument From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Dream of Life, by unknown Mannerist painter, ca. 1533 The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality. Contents 1 Synopsis 2 Hutton’s paradox 3 Simulated reality 4 Critical discussion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References Synopsis Engraving of Descartes Part of a series on René Descartes Cartesianism · Rationalism Foundationalism Doubt and certainty Dream argument Cogito ergo sum Trademark argument Causal adequacy principle Mind–body dichotomy Analytic geometry Coordinate system Cartesian circle · Folium Rule of signs · Cartesian diver Balloonist theory Wax argument Res cogitans · Res extensa Works The World Discourse on the Method La Géométrie Meditations on First Philosophy Principles of Philosophy Passions of the Soul People Christina, Queen of Sweden Baruch Spinoza Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Francine Descartes v t e While people dream, they usually do not realize they are dreaming (if they do, it is called a lucid dream). This has led philosophers to wonder whether one could actually be dreaming constantly, instead of being in waking reality (or at least that one cannot be certain, at any given point in time, that one is not dreaming). In the West, this philosophical puzzle was referred to by Plato (Theaetetus 158b-d) and Aristotle (Metaphysics 1011a6). Having received serious attention in René Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, the dream argument has become one of the most prominent skeptical hypotheses which clearly has an archetype in elements of Plato’s Allegory of the Cave also.[citation needed] This type of argument is well known as “Zhuangzi dreamed he was a butterfly” (莊周夢蝶 Zhuāng Zhōu mèng dié): One night, Zhuangzi (369 BC) dreamed that he was a carefree butterfly, flying happily. After he woke up, he wondered how he could determine whether he was Zhuangzi who had just finished dreaming he was a butterfly, or a butterfly who had just started dreaming he was Zhuangzi. This was a metaphor for what he referred to as a “great dream”: He who dreams of drinking wine may weep when morning comes; he who dreams of weeping may in the morning go off to hunt. While he is dreaming he does not know it is a dream, and in his dream he may even try to interpret a dream. Only after he wakes does he know it was a dream. And someday there will be a great awakening when we know that this is all a great dream. Yet the stupid believe they are awake, busily and brightly assuming they understand things, calling this man ruler, that one herdsman—how dense! Confucius and you are both dreaming! And when I say you are dreaming, I am dreaming, too. Words like these will be labeled the Supreme Swindle. Yet, after ten thousand generations, a great sage may appear who will know their meaning, and it will still be as though he appeared with astonishing speed.[1] One of the first philosophers to posit the dream argument formally was the Yogachara Buddhist philosopher Vasubandhu (fl. 4th to 5th century C.E.) in his ‘Twenty verses on appearance only’. The dream argument features widely in Mahayana Buddhist and Tibetan Buddhist thought. Some schools of thought in Buddhism (e.g., Dzogchen), consider perceived reality ‘literally’ unreal. As a prominent contemporary teacher, Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, puts it: “In a real sense, all the visions that we see in our lifetime are like a big dream […]”.[2] In this context, the term ‘visions’ denotes not only visual perceptions, but appearances perceived through all senses, including sounds, smells, tastes and tactile sensations, and operations on received mental objects. Hutton’s paradox A paradox concerning dreams and the nature of reality was described by the British writer Eric Bond Hutton in 1989.[3] As a child Hutton often had lucid dreams, in which everything seemed as real as in waking life. This led him to wonder whether life itself was a dream, even whether he existed only in somebody else’s dream. Sometimes he had pre-lucid dreams, in which more often than not he concluded he was awake. Such dreams disturbed him greatly, but one day he came up with a magic formula for use in them: “If I find myself asking ‘Am I dreaming?’ it proves I am, for the question would never occur to me in waking life.” Yet, such is the nature of dreams, he could never recall it when he needed to. Many years later, when he wrote a piece about solipsism and his childhood interest in dreams, he was struck by a contradiction in his earlier reasoning. True, asking oneself “Am I dreaming?” in a dream would seem to prove one is. Yet that is precisely what he had often asked himself in waking life. Therein lay a paradox. What was he to conclude? That it does not prove one is dreaming? Or that life really is a dream? Simulated reality See also: Simulated reality and Simulation hypothesis Dreaming provides a springboard for those who question whether our own reality may be an illusion. The ability of the mind to be tricked into believing a mentally generated world is the “real world” means at least one variety of simulated reality is a common, even nightly event.[4] Those who argue that the world is not simulated must concede that the mind—at least the sleeping mind—is not itself an entirely reliable mechanism for attempting to differentiate reality from illusion.[5] “ Whatever I have accepted until now as most true has come to me through my senses. But occasionally I have found that they have deceived me, and it is unwise to trust completely those who have deceived us even once. ” — René Descartes[6] Critical discussion In the past, philosophers John Locke and Thomas Hobbes have separately attempted to refute Descartes’s account of the dream argument. Locke claimed that you cannot experience pain in dreams. Various scientific studies conducted within the last few decades provided evidence against Locke’s claim by concluding that pain in dreams can occur but the pain isn’t as severe. Philosopher Ben Springett has said that Locke might respond to this by stating that the agonising pain of stepping in to a fire is non-comparable to stepping in to a fire in a dream. Hobbes claimed that dreams are susceptible to absurdity while the waking life is not.[7] Many contemporary philosophers have attempted to refute dream skepticism in detail (see, e.g., Stone (1984)).[8] Ernest Sosa (2007) devoted a chapter of a monograph to the topic, in which he presented a new theory of dreaming and argued that his theory raises a new argument for skepticism, which he attempted to refute. In A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, he states: “in dreaming we do not really believe; we only make-believe.”[9] Jonathan Ichikawa (2008) and Nathan Ballantyne & Ian Evans (2010) have offered critiques of Sosa’s proposed solution. Ichikawa argued that as we cannot tell whether our beliefs in waking life are truly beliefs and not imaginings, like in a dream, we are still not able to tell whether we are awake or dreaming. Norman Malcolm in his monograph “Dreaming” (published in 1959) elaborated on Wittgenstein’s question as to whether it really mattered if people who tell dreams “really had these images while they slept, or whether it merely seems so to them on waking”. He argues that the sentence “I am asleep” is a senseless form of words; that dreams cannot exist independently of the waking impression; and that scepticism based on dreaming “comes from confusing the historical and dream telling senses…[of]…the past tense”. (page 120). In the chapter: “Do I Know I Am Awake ?” he argues that we do not have to say: “I know that I am awake” simply because it would be absurd to deny that one is awake. See also Cartesian doubt Consensus reality Evil demon False awakening Maya (illusion) Multiverse Reality in Buddhism Social simulation Solipsism Notes 莊子, 齊物論, 12. Zhuàngzi, “Discussion on making all things equal,” 12. from Zhuàngzi, Burton Watson trans., Chuang Tzu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 43. ISBN 978-0-231-10595-8 [1] Chögyal Namkhai Norbu Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Edited and introduced by Michael Katz, Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca, NY, ISBN 1-55939-007-7, pp. 42, 46, 48, 96, 105. “Adversaria V,” Write Justified, Spring 1989. For Hutton’s definitive statement on the subject see “Hutton’s Paradox,” Fortean Times, April 2015, archived online here. Joseph Barbera, Henry Moller, Dreaming, Virtual Reality, and Presence. Giuliana A. L. Mazzoni and Elizabeth F. Loftus, When Dreams Become Reality. René Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy. “Dreaming, Philosophy of – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy”. utm.edu. Stone, Jim (1984). “Dreaming and Certainty” (PDF). Philosophical Studies. 45 (3): 353–368. doi:10.1007/BF00355443. Sosa, Ernest (2007). A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929702-3. References Ballantyne, Nathan; Evans, Ian (2010). “Sosa’s Dream” (PDF). Philosophical Studies. 148 (2): 249–252. doi:10.1007/s11098-008-9309-y. Ichikawa, Jonathan (2008). “Skepticism and the Imagination Model of Dreaming”. The Philosophical Quarterly. 58 (232): 519–527. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.546.x. Sosa, Ernest (2007). A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929702-3. Stone, Jim (1984). “Dreaming and Certainty”. Philosophical Studies. 45 (3): 353–368. doi:10.1007/BF00355443. Malcolm, N. (1959) Dreaming London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 2nd Impression 1962. [show] v t e Philosophical paradoxes (list) [show] v t e Skepticism Details People on thread: YONI NETANYAHU OLGA BLOG POST BY EMAIL Device: Unknown Device Location: unknown ᐧ Attachments area Preview YouTube video Periodic Table Explained: Introduction

Fwd: Someone just viewed: Dream argument From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Dream of Life, by unknown Mannerist painter, ca. 1533 The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality. Contents 1 Synopsis 2 Hutton’s paradox 3 Simulated reality 4 Critical discussion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References Synopsis Engraving of Descartes Part of a series on René Descartes Cartesianism · Rationalism Foundationalism Doubt and certainty Dream argument Cogito ergo sum Trademark argument Causal ad equacy principle Mind–body dichotomy Analytic geometry Coordinate system Cartesian circle · Folium Rule of signs · Cartesian diver Balloonist theory Wax argument Res cogitans · Res extensa Works

https://www.google.com/search?q=Someone+just+viewed+your+email+with+the+subject:+Dream+argument+From+Wikipedia,+the+free+encyclopedia+The+Dream+of+Life,+by+unknown+Mannerist+painter,+ca.+1533+The+dream+argument+is+the+postulation+that+the+act+of+dreaming+provides+preliminary+evidence+that+the+senses+we+trust+to+distinguish+reality+from+illusion+should+not+be+fully+trusted,+and+therefore,+any+state+that+is+dependent+on+our+senses+should+at+the+very+least+be+carefully+examined+and+rigorously+tested+to+determine+whether+it+is+in+fact+reality.+Contents+1+Synopsis+2+Hutton%27s+paradox+3+Simulated+reality+4+Critical+discussion+5+See+also+6+Notes+7+References+Synopsis+Engraving+of+Descartes+Part+of+a+series+on+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes+Cartesianism+%C2%B7+Rationalism+Foundationalism+Doubt+and+certainty+Dream+argument+Cogito+ergo+sum+Trademark+argument+Causal+adequacy+principle+Mind%E2%80%93body+dichotomy+Analytic+geometry+Coordinate+system+Cartesian+circle+%C2%B7+Folium+Rule+of+signs+%C2%B7+Cartesian+diver+Balloonist+theory+Wax+argument+Res+cogitans+%C2%B7+Res+extensa+Works+The+World+Discourse+on+the+Method+La+G%C3%A9om%C3%A9trie+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy+Principles+of+Philosophy+Passions+of+the+Soul+People+Christina,+Queen+of+Sweden+Baruch+Spinoza+Gottfried+Wilhelm+Leibniz+Francine+Descartes+v+t+e+While+people+dream,+they+usually+do+not+realize+they+are+dreaming+(if+they+do,+it+is+called+a+lucid+dream).+This+has+led+philosophers+to+wonder+whether+one+could+actually+be+dreaming+constantly,+instead+of+being+in+waking+reality+(or+at+least+that+one+cannot+be+certain,+at+any+given+point+in+time,+that+one+is+not+dreaming).+In+the+West,+this+philosophical+puzzle+was+referred+to+by+Plato+(Theaetetus+158b-d)+and+Aristotle+(Metaphysics+1011a6).+Having+received+serious+attention+in+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%27+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy,+the+dream+argument+has+become+one+of+the+most+prominent+skeptical+hypotheses+which+clearly+has+an+archetype+in+elements+of+Plato%27s+Allegory+of+the+Cave+also.%5Bcitation+needed%5D+This+type+of+argument+is+well+known+as+%22Zhuangzi+dreamed+he+was+a+butterfly%22+(%E8%8E%8A%E5%91%A8%E5%A4%A2%E8%9D%B6+Zhu%C4%81ng+Zh%C5%8Du+m%C3%A8ng+di%C3%A9):+One+night,+Zhuangzi+(369+BC)+dreamed+that+he+was+a+carefree+butterfly,+flying+happily.+After+he+woke+up,+he+wondered+how+he+could+determine+whether+he+was+Zhuangzi+who+had+just+finished+dreaming+he+was+a+butterfly,+or+a+butterfly+who+had+just+started+dreaming+he+was+Zhuangzi.+This+was+a+metaphor+for+what+he+referred+to+as+a+%22great+dream%22:+He+who+dreams+of+drinking+wine+may+weep+when+morning+comes%3B+he+who+dreams+of+weeping+may+in+the+morning+go+off+to+hunt.+While+he+is+dreaming+he+does+not+know+it+is+a+dream,+and+in+his+dream+he+may+even+try+to+interpret+a+dream.+Only+after+he+wakes+does+he+know+it+was+a+dream.+And+someday+there+will+be+a+great+awakening+when+we+know+that+this+is+all+a+great+dream.+Yet+the+stupid+believe+they+are+awake,+busily+and+brightly+assuming+they+understand+things,+calling+this+man+ruler,+that+one+herdsman%E2%80%94how+dense!+Confucius+and+you+are+both+dreaming!+And+when+I+say+you+are+dreaming,+I+am+dreaming,+too.+Words+like+these+will+be+labeled+the+Supreme+Swindle.+Yet,+after+ten+thousand+generations,+a+great+sage+may+appear+who+will+know+their+meaning,+and+it+will+still+be+as+though+he+appeared+with+astonishing+speed.%5B1%5D+One+of+the+first+philosophers+to+posit+the+dream+argument+formally+was+the+Yogachara+Buddhist+philosopher+Vasubandhu+(fl.+4th+to+5th+century+C.E.)+in+his+%27Twenty+verses+on+appearance+only%27.+The+dream+argument+features+widely+in+Mahayana+Buddhist+and+Tibetan+Buddhist+thought.+Some+schools+of+thought+in+Buddhism+(e.g.,+Dzogchen),+consider+perceived+reality+%27literally%27+unreal.+As+a+prominent+contemporary+teacher,+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu,+puts+it:+%22In+a+real+sense,+all+the+visions+that+we+see+in+our+lifetime+are+like+a+big+dream+%5B…%5D%22.%5B2%5D+In+this+context,+the+term+%27visions%27+denotes+not+only+visual+perceptions,+but+appearances+perceived+through+all+senses,+including+sounds,+smells,+tastes+and+tactile+sensations,+and+operations+on+received+mental+objects.+Hutton%27s+paradox+A+paradox+concerning+dreams+and+the+nature+of+reality+was+described+by+the+British+writer+Eric+Bond+Hutton+in+1989.%5B3%5D+As+a+child+Hutton+often+had+lucid+dreams,+in+which+everything+seemed+as+real+as+in+waking+life.+This+led+him+to+wonder+whether+life+itself+was+a+dream,+even+whether+he+existed+only+in+somebody+else%27s+dream.+Sometimes+he+had+pre-lucid+dreams,+in+which+more+often+than+not+he+concluded+he+was+awake.+Such+dreams+disturbed+him+greatly,+but+one+day+he+came+up+with+a+magic+formula+for+use+in+them:+%22If+I+find+myself+asking+%27Am+I+dreaming%3F%27+it+proves+I+am,+for+the+question+would+never+occur+to+me+in+waking+life.%22+Yet,+such+is+the+nature+of+dreams,+he+could+never+recall+it+when+he+needed+to.+Many+years+later,+when+he+wrote+a+piece+about+solipsism+and+his+childhood+interest+in+dreams,+he+was+struck+by+a+contradiction+in+his+earlier+reasoning.+True,+asking+oneself+%22Am+I+dreaming%3F%22+in+a+dream+would+seem+to+prove+one+is.+Yet+that+is+precisely+what+he+had+often+asked+himself+in+waking+life.+Therein+lay+a+paradox.+What+was+he+to+conclude%3F+That+it+does+not+prove+one+is+dreaming%3F+Or+that+life+really+is+a+dream%3F+Simulated+reality+See+also:+Simulated+reality+and+Simulation+hypothesis+Dreaming+provides+a+springboard+for+those+who+question+whether+our+own+reality+may+be+an+illusion.+The+ability+of+the+mind+to+be+tricked+into+believing+a+mentally+generated+world+is+the+%22real+world%22+means+at+least+one+variety+of+simulated+reality+is+a+common,+even+nightly+event.%5B4%5D+Those+who+argue+that+the+world+is+not+simulated+must+concede+that+the+mind%E2%80%94at+least+the+sleeping+mind%E2%80%94is+not+itself+an+entirely+reliable+mechanism+for+attempting+to+differentiate+reality+from+illusion.%5B5%5D+%E2%80%9C+Whatever+I+have+accepted+until+now+as+most+true+has+come+to+me+through+my+senses.+But+occasionally+I+have+found+that+they+have+deceived+me,+and+it+is+unwise+to+trust+completely+those+who+have+deceived+us+even+once.+%E2%80%9D+%E2%80%94+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%5B6%5D+Critical+discussion+In+the+past,+philosophers+John+Locke+and+Thomas+Hobbes+have+separately+attempted+to+refute+Descartes%27s+account+of+the+dream+argument.+Locke+claimed+that+you+cannot+experience+pain+in+dreams.+Various+scientific+studies+conducted+within+the+last+few+decades+provided+evidence+against+Locke%27s+claim+by+concluding+that+pain+in+dreams+can+occur+but+the+pain+isn%27t+as+severe.+Philosopher+Ben+Springett+has+said+that+Locke+might+respond+to+this+by+stating+that+the+agonising+pain+of+stepping+in+to+a+fire+is+non-comparable+to+stepping+in+to+a+fire+in+a+dream.+Hobbes+claimed+that+dreams+are+susceptible+to+absurdity+while+the+waking+life+is+not.%5B7%5D+Many+contemporary+philosophers+have+attempted+to+refute+dream+skepticism+in+detail+(see,+e.g.,+Stone+(1984)).%5B8%5D+Ernest+Sosa+(2007)+devoted+a+chapter+of+a+monograph+to+the+topic,+in+which+he+presented+a+new+theory+of+dreaming+and+argued+that+his+theory+raises+a+new+argument+for+skepticism,+which+he+attempted+to+refute.+In+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge,+he+states:+%22in+dreaming+we+do+not+really+believe%3B+we+only+make-believe.%22%5B9%5D+Jonathan+Ichikawa+(2008)+and+Nathan+Ballantyne+%26+Ian+Evans+(2010)+have+offered+critiques+of+Sosa%27s+proposed+solution.+Ichikawa+argued+that+as+we+cannot+tell+whether+our+beliefs+in+waking+life+are+truly+beliefs+and+not+imaginings,+like+in+a+dream,+we+are+still+not+able+to+tell+whether+we+are+awake+or+dreaming.+Norman+Malcolm+in+his+monograph+%22Dreaming%22+(published+in+1959)+elaborated+on+Wittgenstein%27s+question+as+to+whether+it+really+mattered+if+people+who+tell+dreams+%22really+had+these+images+while+they+slept,+or+whether+it+merely+seems+so+to+them+on+waking%22.+He+argues+that+the+sentence+%22I+am+asleep%22+is+a+senseless+form+of+words%3B+that+dreams+cannot+exist+independently+of+the+waking+impression%3B+and+that+scepticism+based+on+dreaming+%22comes+from+confusing+the+historical+and+dream+telling+senses…%5Bof%5D…the+past+tense%22.+(page+120).+In+the+chapter:+%22Do+I+Know+I+Am+Awake+%3F%22+he+argues+that+we+do+not+have+to+say:+%22I+know+that+I+am+awake%22+simply+because+it+would+be+absurd+to+deny+that+one+is+awake.+See+also+Cartesian+doubt+Consensus+reality+Evil+demon+False+awakening+Maya+(illusion)+Multiverse+Reality+in+Buddhism+Social+simulation+Solipsism+Notes+%E8%8E%8A%E5%AD%90,+%E9%BD%8A%E7%89%A9%E8%AB%96,+12.+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+%22Discussion+on+making+all+things+equal,%22+12.+from+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+Burton+Watson+trans.,+Chuang+Tzu+(New+York:+Columbia+University+Press,+1996),+43.+ISBN+978-0-231-10595-8+%5B1%5D+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu+Dream+Yoga+And+The+Practice+Of+Natural+Light+Edited+and+introduced+by+Michael+Katz,+Snow+Lion+Publications,+Ithaca,+NY,+ISBN+1-55939-007-7,+pp.+42,+46,+48,+96,+105.+%22Adversaria+V,%22+Write+Justified,+Spring+1989.+For+Hutton%27s+definitive+statement+on+the+subject+see+%22Hutton%27s+Paradox,%22+Fortean+Times,+April+2015,+archived+online+here.+Joseph+Barbera,+Henry+Moller,+Dreaming,+Virtual+Reality,+and+Presence.+Giuliana+A.+L.+Mazzoni+and+Elizabeth+F.+Loftus,+When+Dreams+Become+Reality.+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes,+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy.+%22Dreaming,+Philosophy+of+%E2%80%93+Internet+Encyclopedia+of+Philosophy%22.+utm.edu.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+References+Ballantyne,+Nathan%3B+Evans,+Ian+(2010).+%22Sosa%27s+Dream%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+148+(2):+249%E2%80%93252.+doi:10.1007/s11098-008-9309-y.+Ichikawa,+Jonathan+(2008).+%22Skepticism+and+the+Imagination+Model+of+Dreaming%22.+The+Philosophical+Quarterly.+58+(232):+519%E2%80%93527.+doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.546.x.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22.+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Malcolm,+N.+(1959)+Dreaming+London:+Routledge+%26+Kegan+Paul,+2nd+Impression+1962.+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Philosophical+paradoxes+(list)+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Skepticism&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwify63LsfzeAhWMXisKHXZDCn0Q_AUIDigB&biw=1536&bih=754&dpr=1.25#imgdii=n4Wb0_IeJkHRCM:&imgrc=Wmz51fks0ziIrM:
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https://www.google.com/search?q=Someone+just+viewed+your+email+with+the+subject:+Dream+argument+From+Wikipedia,+the+free+encyclopedia+The+Dream+of+Life,+by+unknown+Mannerist+painter,+ca.+1533+The+dream+argument+is+the+postulation+that+the+act+of+dreaming+provides+preliminary+evidence+that+the+senses+we+trust+to+distinguish+reality+from+illusion+should+not+be+fully+trusted,+and+therefore,+any+state+that+is+dependent+on+our+senses+should+at+the+very+least+be+carefully+examined+and+rigorously+tested+to+determine+whether+it+is+in+fact+reality.+Contents+1+Synopsis+2+Hutton%27s+paradox+3+Simulated+reality+4+Critical+discussion+5+See+also+6+Notes+7+References+Synopsis+Engraving+of+Descartes+Part+of+a+series+on+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes+Cartesianism+%C2%B7+Rationalism+Foundationalism+Doubt+and+certainty+Dream+argument+Cogito+ergo+sum+Trademark+argument+Causal+adequacy+principle+Mind%E2%80%93body+dichotomy+Analytic+geometry+Coordinate+system+Cartesian+circle+%C2%B7+Folium+Rule+of+signs+%C2%B7+Cartesian+diver+Balloonist+theory+Wax+argument+Res+cogitans+%C2%B7+Res+extensa+Works+The+World+Discourse+on+the+Method+La+G%C3%A9om%C3%A9trie+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy+Principles+of+Philosophy+Passions+of+the+Soul+People+Christina,+Queen+of+Sweden+Baruch+Spinoza+Gottfried+Wilhelm+Leibniz+Francine+Descartes+v+t+e+While+people+dream,+they+usually+do+not+realize+they+are+dreaming+(if+they+do,+it+is+called+a+lucid+dream).+This+has+led+philosophers+to+wonder+whether+one+could+actually+be+dreaming+constantly,+instead+of+being+in+waking+reality+(or+at+least+that+one+cannot+be+certain,+at+any+given+point+in+time,+that+one+is+not+dreaming).+In+the+West,+this+philosophical+puzzle+was+referred+to+by+Plato+(Theaetetus+158b-d)+and+Aristotle+(Metaphysics+1011a6).+Having+received+serious+attention+in+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%27+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy,+the+dream+argument+has+become+one+of+the+most+prominent+skeptical+hypotheses+which+clearly+has+an+archetype+in+elements+of+Plato%27s+Allegory+of+the+Cave+also.%5Bcitation+needed%5D+This+type+of+argument+is+well+known+as+%22Zhuangzi+dreamed+he+was+a+butterfly%22+(%E8%8E%8A%E5%91%A8%E5%A4%A2%E8%9D%B6+Zhu%C4%81ng+Zh%C5%8Du+m%C3%A8ng+di%C3%A9):+One+night,+Zhuangzi+(369+BC)+dreamed+that+he+was+a+carefree+butterfly,+flying+happily.+After+he+woke+up,+he+wondered+how+he+could+determine+whether+he+was+Zhuangzi+who+had+just+finished+dreaming+he+was+a+butterfly,+or+a+butterfly+who+had+just+started+dreaming+he+was+Zhuangzi.+This+was+a+metaphor+for+what+he+referred+to+as+a+%22great+dream%22:+He+who+dreams+of+drinking+wine+may+weep+when+morning+comes%3B+he+who+dreams+of+weeping+may+in+the+morning+go+off+to+hunt.+While+he+is+dreaming+he+does+not+know+it+is+a+dream,+and+in+his+dream+he+may+even+try+to+interpret+a+dream.+Only+after+he+wakes+does+he+know+it+was+a+dream.+And+someday+there+will+be+a+great+awakening+when+we+know+that+this+is+all+a+great+dream.+Yet+the+stupid+believe+they+are+awake,+busily+and+brightly+assuming+they+understand+things,+calling+this+man+ruler,+that+one+herdsman%E2%80%94how+dense!+Confucius+and+you+are+both+dreaming!+And+when+I+say+you+are+dreaming,+I+am+dreaming,+too.+Words+like+these+will+be+labeled+the+Supreme+Swindle.+Yet,+after+ten+thousand+generations,+a+great+sage+may+appear+who+will+know+their+meaning,+and+it+will+still+be+as+though+he+appeared+with+astonishing+speed.%5B1%5D+One+of+the+first+philosophers+to+posit+the+dream+argument+formally+was+the+Yogachara+Buddhist+philosopher+Vasubandhu+(fl.+4th+to+5th+century+C.E.)+in+his+%27Twenty+verses+on+appearance+only%27.+The+dream+argument+features+widely+in+Mahayana+Buddhist+and+Tibetan+Buddhist+thought.+Some+schools+of+thought+in+Buddhism+(e.g.,+Dzogchen),+consider+perceived+reality+%27literally%27+unreal.+As+a+prominent+contemporary+teacher,+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu,+puts+it:+%22In+a+real+sense,+all+the+visions+that+we+see+in+our+lifetime+are+like+a+big+dream+%5B…%5D%22.%5B2%5D+In+this+context,+the+term+%27visions%27+denotes+not+only+visual+perceptions,+but+appearances+perceived+through+all+senses,+including+sounds,+smells,+tastes+and+tactile+sensations,+and+operations+on+received+mental+objects.+Hutton%27s+paradox+A+paradox+concerning+dreams+and+the+nature+of+reality+was+described+by+the+British+writer+Eric+Bond+Hutton+in+1989.%5B3%5D+As+a+child+Hutton+often+had+lucid+dreams,+in+which+everything+seemed+as+real+as+in+waking+life.+This+led+him+to+wonder+whether+life+itself+was+a+dream,+even+whether+he+existed+only+in+somebody+else%27s+dream.+Sometimes+he+had+pre-lucid+dreams,+in+which+more+often+than+not+he+concluded+he+was+awake.+Such+dreams+disturbed+him+greatly,+but+one+day+he+came+up+with+a+magic+formula+for+use+in+them:+%22If+I+find+myself+asking+%27Am+I+dreaming%3F%27+it+proves+I+am,+for+the+question+would+never+occur+to+me+in+waking+life.%22+Yet,+such+is+the+nature+of+dreams,+he+could+never+recall+it+when+he+needed+to.+Many+years+later,+when+he+wrote+a+piece+about+solipsism+and+his+childhood+interest+in+dreams,+he+was+struck+by+a+contradiction+in+his+earlier+reasoning.+True,+asking+oneself+%22Am+I+dreaming%3F%22+in+a+dream+would+seem+to+prove+one+is.+Yet+that+is+precisely+what+he+had+often+asked+himself+in+waking+life.+Therein+lay+a+paradox.+What+was+he+to+conclude%3F+That+it+does+not+prove+one+is+dreaming%3F+Or+that+life+really+is+a+dream%3F+Simulated+reality+See+also:+Simulated+reality+and+Simulation+hypothesis+Dreaming+provides+a+springboard+for+those+who+question+whether+our+own+reality+may+be+an+illusion.+The+ability+of+the+mind+to+be+tricked+into+believing+a+mentally+generated+world+is+the+%22real+world%22+means+at+least+one+variety+of+simulated+reality+is+a+common,+even+nightly+event.%5B4%5D+Those+who+argue+that+the+world+is+not+simulated+must+concede+that+the+mind%E2%80%94at+least+the+sleeping+mind%E2%80%94is+not+itself+an+entirely+reliable+mechanism+for+attempting+to+differentiate+reality+from+illusion.%5B5%5D+%E2%80%9C+Whatever+I+have+accepted+until+now+as+most+true+has+come+to+me+through+my+senses.+But+occasionally+I+have+found+that+they+have+deceived+me,+and+it+is+unwise+to+trust+completely+those+who+have+deceived+us+even+once.+%E2%80%9D+%E2%80%94+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes%5B6%5D+Critical+discussion+In+the+past,+philosophers+John+Locke+and+Thomas+Hobbes+have+separately+attempted+to+refute+Descartes%27s+account+of+the+dream+argument.+Locke+claimed+that+you+cannot+experience+pain+in+dreams.+Various+scientific+studies+conducted+within+the+last+few+decades+provided+evidence+against+Locke%27s+claim+by+concluding+that+pain+in+dreams+can+occur+but+the+pain+isn%27t+as+severe.+Philosopher+Ben+Springett+has+said+that+Locke+might+respond+to+this+by+stating+that+the+agonising+pain+of+stepping+in+to+a+fire+is+non-comparable+to+stepping+in+to+a+fire+in+a+dream.+Hobbes+claimed+that+dreams+are+susceptible+to+absurdity+while+the+waking+life+is+not.%5B7%5D+Many+contemporary+philosophers+have+attempted+to+refute+dream+skepticism+in+detail+(see,+e.g.,+Stone+(1984)).%5B8%5D+Ernest+Sosa+(2007)+devoted+a+chapter+of+a+monograph+to+the+topic,+in+which+he+presented+a+new+theory+of+dreaming+and+argued+that+his+theory+raises+a+new+argument+for+skepticism,+which+he+attempted+to+refute.+In+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge,+he+states:+%22in+dreaming+we+do+not+really+believe%3B+we+only+make-believe.%22%5B9%5D+Jonathan+Ichikawa+(2008)+and+Nathan+Ballantyne+%26+Ian+Evans+(2010)+have+offered+critiques+of+Sosa%27s+proposed+solution.+Ichikawa+argued+that+as+we+cannot+tell+whether+our+beliefs+in+waking+life+are+truly+beliefs+and+not+imaginings,+like+in+a+dream,+we+are+still+not+able+to+tell+whether+we+are+awake+or+dreaming.+Norman+Malcolm+in+his+monograph+%22Dreaming%22+(published+in+1959)+elaborated+on+Wittgenstein%27s+question+as+to+whether+it+really+mattered+if+people+who+tell+dreams+%22really+had+these+images+while+they+slept,+or+whether+it+merely+seems+so+to+them+on+waking%22.+He+argues+that+the+sentence+%22I+am+asleep%22+is+a+senseless+form+of+words%3B+that+dreams+cannot+exist+independently+of+the+waking+impression%3B+and+that+scepticism+based+on+dreaming+%22comes+from+confusing+the+historical+and+dream+telling+senses…%5Bof%5D…the+past+tense%22.+(page+120).+In+the+chapter:+%22Do+I+Know+I+Am+Awake+%3F%22+he+argues+that+we+do+not+have+to+say:+%22I+know+that+I+am+awake%22+simply+because+it+would+be+absurd+to+deny+that+one+is+awake.+See+also+Cartesian+doubt+Consensus+reality+Evil+demon+False+awakening+Maya+(illusion)+Multiverse+Reality+in+Buddhism+Social+simulation+Solipsism+Notes+%E8%8E%8A%E5%AD%90,+%E9%BD%8A%E7%89%A9%E8%AB%96,+12.+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+%22Discussion+on+making+all+things+equal,%22+12.+from+Zhu%C3%A0ngzi,+Burton+Watson+trans.,+Chuang+Tzu+(New+York:+Columbia+University+Press,+1996),+43.+ISBN+978-0-231-10595-8+%5B1%5D+Ch%C3%B6gyal+Namkhai+Norbu+Dream+Yoga+And+The+Practice+Of+Natural+Light+Edited+and+introduced+by+Michael+Katz,+Snow+Lion+Publications,+Ithaca,+NY,+ISBN+1-55939-007-7,+pp.+42,+46,+48,+96,+105.+%22Adversaria+V,%22+Write+Justified,+Spring+1989.+For+Hutton%27s+definitive+statement+on+the+subject+see+%22Hutton%27s+Paradox,%22+Fortean+Times,+April+2015,+archived+online+here.+Joseph+Barbera,+Henry+Moller,+Dreaming,+Virtual+Reality,+and+Presence.+Giuliana+A.+L.+Mazzoni+and+Elizabeth+F.+Loftus,+When+Dreams+Become+Reality.+Ren%C3%A9+Descartes,+Meditations+on+First+Philosophy.+%22Dreaming,+Philosophy+of+%E2%80%93+Internet+Encyclopedia+of+Philosophy%22.+utm.edu.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+References+Ballantyne,+Nathan%3B+Evans,+Ian+(2010).+%22Sosa%27s+Dream%22+(PDF).+Philosophical+Studies.+148+(2):+249%E2%80%93252.+doi:10.1007/s11098-008-9309-y.+Ichikawa,+Jonathan+(2008).+%22Skepticism+and+the+Imagination+Model+of+Dreaming%22.+The+Philosophical+Quarterly.+58+(232):+519%E2%80%93527.+doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.546.x.+Sosa,+Ernest+(2007).+A+Virtue+Epistemology:+Apt+Belief+and+Reflective+Knowledge.+New+York:+Oxford+University+Press.+ISBN+978-0-19-929702-3.+Stone,+Jim+(1984).+%22Dreaming+and+Certainty%22.+Philosophical+Studies.+45+(3):+353%E2%80%93368.+doi:10.1007/BF00355443.+Malcolm,+N.+(1959)+Dreaming+London:+Routledge+%26+Kegan+Paul,+2nd+Impression+1962.+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Philosophical+paradoxes+(list)+%5Bshow%5D+v+t+e+Skepticism&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwify63LsfzeAhWMXisKHXZDCn0Q_AUIDigB&biw=1536&bih=754&dpr=1.25#imgdii=_KI_i3ufwSt4nM:&imgrc=JpHKwo50Il5BeM:
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Sincerely
Ajay
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Subject: Someone just viewed: Dream argument From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Dream of Life, by unknown Mannerist painter, ca. 1533 The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality. Contents 1 Synopsis 2 Hutton’s paradox 3 Simulated reality 4 Critical discussion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References Synopsis Engraving of Descartes Part of a series on René Descartes Cartesianism · Rationalism Foundationalism Doubt and certainty Dream argument Cogito ergo sum Trademark argument Causal ad equacy principle Mind–body dichotomy Analytic geometry Coordinate system Cartesian circle · Folium Rule of signs · Cartesian diver Balloonist theory Wax argument Res cogitans · Res extensa Works Th
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Someone just viewed your email with the subject: Dream argument From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Dream of Life, by unknown Mannerist painter, ca. 1533 The dream argument is the postulation that the act of dreaming provides preliminary evidence that the senses we trust to distinguish reality from illusion should not be fully trusted, and therefore, any state that is dependent on our senses should at the very least be carefully examined and rigorously tested to determine whether it is in fact reality. Contents 1 Synopsis 2 Hutton’s paradox 3 Simulated reality 4 Critical discussion 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References Synopsis Engraving of Descartes Part of a series on René Descartes Cartesianism · Rationalism Foundationalism Doubt and certainty Dream argument Cogito ergo sum Trademark argument Causal adequacy principle Mind–body dichotomy Analytic geometry Coordinate system Cartesian circle · Folium Rule of signs · Cartesian diver Balloonist theory Wax argument Res cogitans · Res extensa Works The World Discourse on the Method La Géométrie Meditations on First Philosophy Principles of Philosophy Passions of the Soul People Christina, Queen of Sweden Baruch Spinoza Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Francine Descartes v t e While people dream, they usually do not realize they are dreaming (if they do, it is called a lucid dream). This has led philosophers to wonder whether one could actually be dreaming constantly, instead of being in waking reality (or at least that one cannot be certain, at any given point in time, that one is not dreaming). In the West, this philosophical puzzle was referred to by Plato (Theaetetus 158b-d) and Aristotle (Metaphysics 1011a6). Having received serious attention in René Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, the dream argument has become one of the most prominent skeptical hypotheses which clearly has an archetype in elements of Plato’s Allegory of the Cave also.[citation needed] This type of argument is well known as “Zhuangzi dreamed he was a butterfly” (莊周夢蝶 Zhuāng Zhōu mèng dié): One night, Zhuangzi (369 BC) dreamed that he was a carefree butterfly, flying happily. After he woke up, he wondered how he could determine whether he was Zhuangzi who had just finished dreaming he was a butterfly, or a butterfly who had just started dreaming he was Zhuangzi. This was a metaphor for what he referred to as a “great dream”: He who dreams of drinking wine may weep when morning comes; he who dreams of weeping may in the morning go off to hunt. While he is dreaming he does not know it is a dream, and in his dream he may even try to interpret a dream. Only after he wakes does he know it was a dream. And someday there will be a great awakening when we know that this is all a great dream. Yet the stupid believe they are awake, busily and brightly assuming they understand things, calling this man ruler, that one herdsman—how dense! Confucius and you are both dreaming! And when I say you are dreaming, I am dreaming, too. Words like these will be labeled the Supreme Swindle. Yet, after ten thousand generations, a great sage may appear who will know their meaning, and it will still be as though he appeared with astonishing speed.[1] One of the first philosophers to posit the dream argument formally was the Yogachara Buddhist philosopher Vasubandhu (fl. 4th to 5th century C.E.) in his ‘Twenty verses on appearance only’. The dream argument features widely in Mahayana Buddhist and Tibetan Buddhist thought. Some schools of thought in Buddhism (e.g., Dzogchen), consider perceived reality ‘literally’ unreal. As a prominent contemporary teacher, Chögyal Namkhai Norbu, puts it: “In a real sense, all the visions that we see in our lifetime are like a big dream […]”.[2] In this context, the term ‘visions’ denotes not only visual perceptions, but appearances perceived through all senses, including sounds, smells, tastes and tactile sensations, and operations on received mental objects. Hutton’s paradox A paradox concerning dreams and the nature of reality was described by the British writer Eric Bond Hutton in 1989.[3] As a child Hutton often had lucid dreams, in which everything seemed as real as in waking life. This led him to wonder whether life itself was a dream, even whether he existed only in somebody else’s dream. Sometimes he had pre-lucid dreams, in which more often than not he concluded he was awake. Such dreams disturbed him greatly, but one day he came up with a magic formula for use in them: “If I find myself asking ‘Am I dreaming?’ it proves I am, for the question would never occur to me in waking life.” Yet, such is the nature of dreams, he could never recall it when he needed to. Many years later, when he wrote a piece about solipsism and his childhood interest in dreams, he was struck by a contradiction in his earlier reasoning. True, asking oneself “Am I dreaming?” in a dream would seem to prove one is. Yet that is precisely what he had often asked himself in waking life. Therein lay a paradox. What was he to conclude? That it does not prove one is dreaming? Or that life really is a dream? Simulated reality See also: Simulated reality and Simulation hypothesis Dreaming provides a springboard for those who question whether our own reality may be an illusion. The ability of the mind to be tricked into believing a mentally generated world is the “real world” means at least one variety of simulated reality is a common, even nightly event.[4] Those who argue that the world is not simulated must concede that the mind—at least the sleeping mind—is not itself an entirely reliable mechanism for attempting to differentiate reality from illusion.[5] “ Whatever I have accepted until now as most true has come to me through my senses. But occasionally I have found that they have deceived me, and it is unwise to trust completely those who have deceived us even once. ” — René Descartes[6] Critical discussion In the past, philosophers John Locke and Thomas Hobbes have separately attempted to refute Descartes’s account of the dream argument. Locke claimed that you cannot experience pain in dreams. Various scientific studies conducted within the last few decades provided evidence against Locke’s claim by concluding that pain in dreams can occur but the pain isn’t as severe. Philosopher Ben Springett has said that Locke might respond to this by stating that the agonising pain of stepping in to a fire is non-comparable to stepping in to a fire in a dream. Hobbes claimed that dreams are susceptible to absurdity while the waking life is not.[7] Many contemporary philosophers have attempted to refute dream skepticism in detail (see, e.g., Stone (1984)).[8] Ernest Sosa (2007) devoted a chapter of a monograph to the topic, in which he presented a new theory of dreaming and argued that his theory raises a new argument for skepticism, which he attempted to refute. In A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge, he states: “in dreaming we do not really believe; we only make-believe.”[9] Jonathan Ichikawa (2008) and Nathan Ballantyne & Ian Evans (2010) have offered critiques of Sosa’s proposed solution. Ichikawa argued that as we cannot tell whether our beliefs in waking life are truly beliefs and not imaginings, like in a dream, we are still not able to tell whether we are awake or dreaming. Norman Malcolm in his monograph “Dreaming” (published in 1959) elaborated on Wittgenstein’s question as to whether it really mattered if people who tell dreams “really had these images while they slept, or whether it merely seems so to them on waking”. He argues that the sentence “I am asleep” is a senseless form of words; that dreams cannot exist independently of the waking impression; and that scepticism based on dreaming “comes from confusing the historical and dream telling senses…[of]…the past tense”. (page 120). In the chapter: “Do I Know I Am Awake ?” he argues that we do not have to say: “I know that I am awake” simply because it would be absurd to deny that one is awake. See also Cartesian doubt Consensus reality Evil demon False awakening Maya (illusion) Multiverse Reality in Buddhism Social simulation Solipsism Notes 莊子, 齊物論, 12. Zhuàngzi, “Discussion on making all things equal,” 12. from Zhuàngzi, Burton Watson trans., Chuang Tzu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 43. ISBN 978-0-231-10595-8 [1] Chögyal Namkhai Norbu Dream Yoga And The Practice Of Natural Light Edited and introduced by Michael Katz, Snow Lion Publications, Ithaca, NY, ISBN 1-55939-007-7, pp. 42, 46, 48, 96, 105. “Adversaria V,” Write Justified, Spring 1989. For Hutton’s definitive statement on the subject see “Hutton’s Paradox,” Fortean Times, April 2015, archived online here. Joseph Barbera, Henry Moller, Dreaming, Virtual Reality, and Presence. Giuliana A. L. Mazzoni and Elizabeth F. Loftus, When Dreams Become Reality. René Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy. “Dreaming, Philosophy of – Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy”. utm.edu. Stone, Jim (1984). “Dreaming and Certainty” (PDF). Philosophical Studies. 45 (3): 353–368. doi:10.1007/BF00355443. Sosa, Ernest (2007). A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929702-3. References Ballantyne, Nathan; Evans, Ian (2010). “Sosa’s Dream” (PDF). Philosophical Studies. 148 (2): 249–252. doi:10.1007/s11098-008-9309-y. Ichikawa, Jonathan (2008). “Skepticism and the Imagination Model of Dreaming”. The Philosophical Quarterly. 58 (232): 519–527. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2007.546.x. Sosa, Ernest (2007). A Virtue Epistemology: Apt Belief and Reflective Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929702-3. Stone, Jim (1984). “Dreaming and Certainty”. Philosophical Studies. 45 (3): 353–368. doi:10.1007/BF00355443. Malcolm, N. (1959) Dreaming London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 2nd Impression 1962. [show] v t e Philosophical paradoxes (list) [show] v t e Skepticism
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BUBBA, ITS ABOUT TIME.. TO FIND OLGA

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