IN SIMpLE WORFDS: : FOR OLGA : QND BIBI NETANYAHU -> U WILL NEED THIS ONE DAY term “monism” was introduced in th e 18th century by Christian von Wolff6 in his work Logic (1728),7 to designate types of philosophical thought in whi ch the attempt was made to eliminate the dichotomy of body and mind8 and explain all phenomena by one unifying princip le, or as manifestations of a single substance.6 The mind–body problem in philosophy examines the relationship betw een mind and matter, and in particular the relationship between consciousness and the brain. The problem was addressed b y René Descartes in the 17th century, resulting in Cartesian dualism, and by pre-Aristotelian philosophers,910 in A vicennian philosophy,11 and in earlier Asian and more specifically Indian traditions. It was later also applied to the theory of absolute identity set forth by Hegel and Schelling.12 Thereafter the term was more broadly used, for any th eory postulating a unifying principle.12 T
THe term “monism” was introduced in the 18th century by Christian von Wolff in his work Logic (1728), to designate types of philosophical thought in which the attempt was made to eliminate the dichotomy of body and mind and explain all phenomena by one unifying principle, or as manifestations of a single substance.
It was later also applied to the theory of absolute identity set forth by Hegel and Schelling.
Thereafter the term was more broadly used, for any theory postulating a unifying principle. The opponent thesis of dualism also was broadened, to include pluralism. According to Urmson, as a result of this extended use, the term is “systematically ambiguous”.
According to Jonathan Schaffer, monism lost popularity due to the emergence of Analytic philosophy in the early twentieth century, which revolted against the neo-Hegelians. Carnap and Ayer, who were strong proponents of positivism, “ridiculed the whole question as incoherent mysticism“.
The mind–body problem has reemerged in social psychology and related fields, with the interest in mind–body interaction
and the rejection of Cartesian mind–body dualism in the identity thesis, a modern form of monism.