ITS CALELD HINDUS AND HINDUISM
- For the David Sassoon’s son see Sassoon David Sassoon.
- For the British fashion designer see David Sassoon (designer).
|Died||November 7, 1864 (aged 72)|
|Resting place||Ohel David Synagogue Complex, Pune|
|Spouse(s)||Hannah Joseph (1818)
Farha Hyeem (1828)
|Children||From Hanah Joshep:
Elias David Sassoon
+ 1 daughter
From Farha Hyeem:
Sassoon David Sassoon
Reuben David Sassoon
Solomon David Sassoon
Frederick David Sassoon
+ 3 Daughters
|Parent(s)||Saleh Sassoon (1750-1830)
David Sassoon (October 1792 – November 7, 1864) was the treasurer of Baghdad between 1817 and 1829. He became the leader of the Jewish community in Bombay (now Mumbai) after Baghdadi Jews emigrated there.
Life and career
Sassoon was born in Baghdad, where his father, Sassoon (1750-1830), was a wealthy businessman, chief treasurer to the pashas (the governors of Baghdad) from 1781 to 1817, and president (Nasi) of the city’s Jewish community.
The family were Iraqi Jews. His mother was Amam Gabbai. After a traditional education in the Hebrew language, Sassoon married Hannah Joseph in 1818. They had two sons and two daughters before she died in 1826. Two years later he married Farha Hyeem (who was born in 1812 and died in 1886). The pair had six sons and three daughters.
Following increasing persecution of Baghdad’s Jews by Dawud Pasha, the family moved to Bombay via Persia. Sassoon was in business in Bombay no later than 1832, originally acting as a middleman between British textile firms and Persian Gulf commodity merchants, subsequently investing in valuable harbour properties. His major competitors were Parsis, whose profits were built on their domination of the Sino-Indian opium trade since the 1820s.
When the Treaty of Nanking opened up China to British traders, Sassoon developed his textile operations into a profitable triangular trade: Indian yarn and opium were carried to China, where he bought goods which were sold in Britain, from where he obtained Lancashire cotton products. He sent his son Elias David Sassoon to Canton, where he was the first Jewish trader (with 24 Parsi rivals). In 1845, David Sassoon & Co. opened an office in what would soon become Shanghai’s British concession, and it became the firm’s second hub of operations.
It was not until the 1860s that the Sassoons were able to lead the Baghdadi Jewish community in overtaking Parsi dominance. A particular opportunity was given by the American Civil War, during which turmoil American cotton exports from the South declined. Lancashire factories replaced American cotton imports with Sassoon’s Indian cotton.
Along with Parsi businessmen such as Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, David Sassoon continued the trade with China and from the wealth earned there he started his own business of oil. His first mill was named E.D. Sassoon Mills and he became exceedingly prosperous. Later the Sassoons were the largest mill owners and were known as Badshah of the business community of Bombay. Overall there were 17 mills, employing in total some 15,000 to 20,000 slaves and workers. Later, David Sassoon also entered the cotton, fabrics and various other industries on a large scale.
David Sassoon, as an Orthodox Jew, continued his Jewish religious observances, observing the Jewish Sabbath throughout his busy life. He was also a member of the Legislative Assembly of the time. He built one of the largest and most beautiful synagogues of India, the Magen David synagogue at Byculla, Bombay. He also built the Ohel David Synagogue of Pune. Today these are well known tourist attractions and form an important part of the cultural heritage of India. Various charity trusts, which continue in existence today, were funded from his private income and named after him and other members of his family. David Sassoon funded monuments and educational institutions in Mumbai. By his enterprise Sassoon Docks at Colaba in the city were built.
He soon came to live with his family at a palatial home he reconfigured and named Byculla’s Bungalow or Sans Souci, the former palace of Shin Sangoo. This was later donated to the Parsi Trust and is today’s Masina Hospital. Nearby Rani Bagh (Jijamata Udyann) was also his property and was donated to the Mumbai Municipal Corporation for the construction of the Albert Museum, designed by the most prominent architect of the time. The interior is exactly like the Magen David synagogue and the Ohel David Synagogue of Pune. It has a tall clock tower, the Victoria clock tower.
Although David Sassoon did not speak English, he became a naturalised British citizen in 1853. He kept the dress and manners of the Baghdadi Jews, but allowed his sons to adopt English manners. His son, Abdullah changed his name to Albert, moved to England, became a Baronet and married into the Rothschild family. All the Sassoons of Europe are said to be[by whom?] descendants of David Sassoon. He built a synagogue in the Fort (area) and another in Byculla, as well as a school, a Mechanics’ Institute, a library and a convalescent home in Pune. David Sassoon was conscious of his role as a leader of the Jewish community in Mumbai. He helped to arouse a sense of Jewish identity among the Bene Israeli and Cochin Jewish communities. The Sassoon Docks (built by his son) and the David Sassoon Library are named after him. For more information about his legacy and relations with the local Bene Israel community see Dr. Shalva Weil’s article.
David Sassoon died in his country house in Pune in 1864. His business interests were inherited by his son Sir Albert Sassoon; Elias David had established a rival firm. His grandson David Solomon Sassoon was a renowned bibliophile.
Some of the prominent Buildings built by David Sasoon and his family are:
- David Sassoon Library & reading room, Fort Mumbai
- Magen David Synagogue, Byculla, Mumbai
- Jacob Sasooon High School, Byculla, Mumbai
- E.E.E. Sassoon High School, Byculla, Mumbai
- David Sassoon Hospital, JJ Hospital Premises, Byculla, Mumbai
- Masina Hospital, Byculla, Mumbai
- Knesset Eliyahoo Synagogue, Colaba, Mumbai
- Sassoon Dock, Colaba, Mumbai
- The Bank of India, Fort (head office), Mumbai
- The David Sassoon Reformary and Deaf school, Matunga, Mumbai
- Ohel David Synagogue, Pune
- Sassoon Hospital, Pune
- Lady Rachel Sassoon Dispensary, Pune
- David Sassoon Elderly and Destitute Persons Home (1863), Pune (today’s Nivara Old Age Home)
- Sassoon House
They have contributed to the construction of:
History of the Jews in India
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|Jews and Judaism|
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The history of the Jews in India reaches back to ancient times. Judaism was one of the first foreign religions to arrive in India in recorded history. Indian Jews are a religious minority of India, but, unlike many parts of the world, have historically lived in India without any instances of anti-Semitism from the local majority populace. The better-established ancient communities have assimilated many local traditions through cultural diffusion. While some Jews state their ancestors arrived in India during the time of the Kingdom of Judah, others identify themselves as descendants of Israel’s Ten Lost Tribes. It is estimated that India’s Jewish population peaked at around 20,000 in the mid-1940s, and began to rapidly decline due to their emigration to Israel after its creation in 1948.
Jewish groups in India
In addition to Jewish expatriates and recent immigrants, there are seven Jewish groups in India:
- The Malabar component of the Cochin Jews, according to Shalva Weil, claim to have arrived in India together with the Hebrew King Solomon‘s merchants. The Cochin Jews settled in Kerala as traders. The fair-complexioned component is of European-Jewish descent, both Ashkenazi and Sephardi.
- Chennai Jews: The so-called Spanish and Portuguese Jews, Paradesi Jews and British Jews arrived at Madras during the 16th century. They were diamond businesspeople and of Sephardi and Ashkenazi heritage. Following expulsion from Iberia in 1492 by the Alhambra Decree, a few families of Sephardic Jews eventually made their way to Madras in the 16th century. They maintained trade connections to Europe, and their language skills were useful. Although the Sephardim mostly spoke Ladino (i.e. Spanish or Judeo-Spanish), in India they learned Tamil and Judeo-Malayalam from the Malabar Jews.
- Nagercoil Jews: The so-called Syrian Jews, Musta’arabi Jews were Arab Jews who arrived at Nagercoil and Kanyakumari District in 52 AD along with the arrival of St. Thomas. Most of them were merchants and had also settled around the town of Thiruvithamcode. By the turn of the 20th century, most of the families made their way to Cochin and eventually migrated to Israel. In their early days, they maintained trade connections to Europe through the nearby ports of Colachal and Thengaipattinam, and their language skills were useful to the Travancore Kings. As historians Rev. Daniel Tyerman and George cited the reason the Jews selecting Nagercoil as their settlement was for the towns salubrious climate and its significant Christian population.
- The Jews of Goa: These were Portuguese Jews who fled to Portuguese Goa after the commencement of the Inquisition in Portugal. The community consisted mainly of “New Christians” who were Jews by blood and had converted under the duress of the Inquisition. This group was the target of heavy persecution with the start of the Goan Inquisition, which put on trial famed physician Garcia de Orta, among others.
- Another branch of the Bene Israel community resided in Karachi until the Partition of India in 1947, when they fled to India (in particular, to Mumbai). Many of them also moved to Israel. The Jews from the Sindh, Punjab and Pathan areas are often incorrectly called Bani Israel Jews. The Jewish community who used to reside in other parts of what became Pakistan (such as Lahore or Peshawar) also fled to India in 1947, in a similar manner to the larger Karachi Jewish community.
- The Baghdadi Jews arrived in the city of Surat from Iraq (and other Arab states), Iran and Afghanistan about 250 years ago.[when?]
- The Bnei Menashe meaning “Sons of Manassah” in Hebrew, are Mizo and Kuki tribesmen in Manipur and Mizoram who are recent converts to the modern form of Judaism, but claim ancestry reaching back to one of the lost ten tribes of Israel; specifically, one of the sons of Joseph.
- Similarly, the small Telugu speaking group, the Bene Ephraim (meaning “Sons of Ephraim” in Hebrew) also claim ancestry from Ephraim, one of the sons of Joseph and a lost tribe of ancient Israel. Also called “Telugu Jews”, their observance of modern Judaism dates to 1981.
The oldest of the Indian Jewish communities was in the erstwhile Cochin Kingdom. The traditional account is that traders of Judea arrived at Cranganore, an ancient port near Cochin in 562 BC, and that more Jews came as exiles from Israel in the year 70 AD, after the destruction of the Second Temple. Many of these Jews’ ancestors passed on the account that they settled in India when the Hebrew King Solomon was in power. This was a time that teak wood, ivory, spices, monkeys, and peacocks were popular in trade in Cochin. There is no specific date or reason mentioned as to why they arrived in India, but Hebrew scholars date it to up to around the early Middle Ages. Cochin is a group of small tropical islands filled with markets and many different cultures such as Dutch, Hindu, Jewish, Portuguese, and British. The distinct Jewish community was called Anjuvannam. The still-functioning synagogue in Mattancherry belongs to the Paradesi Jews, the descendants of Sephardim that were expelled from Spain in 1492, although the Jewish community in Mattancherry adjacent to Fort Cochin had only six remaining members as of 2015.
Central to the history of the Cochin Jews is their close relationship with Indian rulers, and this was eventually codified on a set of copper plates granting the community special privileges. The date of these plates, known as “Sâsanam”, is contentious. The plates themselves provide a date of 379 CE, but in 1925, tradition was setting it as 1069 CE, Joseph Rabban by Bhaskara Ravi Varma, the fourth ruler of Maliban granted the copper plates to the Jews. The plates were inscribed with a message stating that the village of Anjuvannam belonged to the Jews and that they were the rightful lords of Anjuvannam and it should remain theirs and be passed on to their Jewish descendants “so long as the world and moon exist”. This is the earliest document that shows that the Jews were living in India permanently. It is stored in Cochins main synagogue. The Jews settled in Kodungallur (Cranganore) on the Malabar Coast, where they traded peacefully, until 1524. The Jewish leader Rabban was granted the rank of prince over the Jews of Cochin, given the rulership and tax revenue of a pocket principality in Anjuvannam, near Cranganore, and rights to seventy-two “free houses”. The Hindu king gave permission in perpetuity (or, in the more poetic expression of those days, “as long as the world and moon exist”) for Jews to live freely, build synagogues, and own property “without conditions attached”. A link back to Rabban, “the king of Shingly” (another name for Cranganore), was a sign of both purity and prestige. Rabban’s descendants maintained this distinct community until a chieftainship dispute broke out between two brothers, one of them named Joseph Azar, in the 16th century. The Jews lived peacefully for over a thousand years in Anjuvannam. After the reign of the Rabban’s, the Jewish people no longer had the protection of the copper plates. Neighboring princes of Anjuvannam intervened and revoked all privileges that the Jewish people were given. In 1524, the Jews were attacked by the Moors brothers (Muslim Community) on a suspicion that they were messing with the pepper trade and the homes and synagogues belonging to them were destroyed. The damage was so extensive that when the Portuguese arrived a few years later, only a small amount of impoverished Jews remained. They remained there for 40 more years only to return to their land of Cochin.
In Mala, Thrissur District, the Malabar Jews have a Synagogue and a cemetery, as well as in Chennamangalam, Parur and Ernakulam. There are at least seven existing synagogues in Kerala, although not serving their original purpose anymore.
Jews also settled in Madras (now Chennai) soon after its founding in 1640. Most of them were coral merchants from Leghorn, the Caribbean, London, and Amsterdam who were of Portuguese origin and belonged to the Henriques De Castro, Franco, Paiva or Porto families.
Jacques (Jaime) de Paiva (Pavia), originally from Amsterdam belonging to Amsterdam Sephardic community, was an early Jewish arrival and the leader of Madras Jewish community. He built the Second Madras Synagogue and Jewish Cemetery Chennai in Peddanaickenpet, which later became the South end of Mint Street.
Jacques (Jaime) de Paiva (Pavia) established good relations with those in power and bought several Golconda diamonds mines to source Golconda diamonds. Through his efforts, Jews were permitted to live within Fort St. George.
De Paiva died in 1687 after a visit to his mines and was buried in the Jewish cemetery he had established in Peddanaickenpet, which later became the north Mint Street.[a] In 1670, the Portuguese population in Madras numbered around 3000. Before his death he established “The Colony of Jewish Traders of Madraspatam” with Antonio do Porto, Pedro Pereira and Fernando Mendes Henriques. This enabled more Portuguese Jews, from Leghorn, the Caribbean, London and Amsterdam, to settle in Madras. Coral Merchant Street was named after the Jews’ business.
Three Portuguese Jews were nominated to be aldermen of Madras Corporation. Three – Bartolomeo Rodrigues, Domingo do Porto and Alvaro da Fonseca – also founded the largest trading house in Madras. The large tomb of Rodrigues, who died in Madras in 1692, became a landmark in Peddanaickenpet, but was later destroyed.
In 1688, there were three Jewish representatives in the Madras Corporation. Most Jewish settlers resided in the Coral Merchants Street in Muthialpet. They also had a cemetery, called Jewish Cemetery Chennai in the neighbouring Peddanaickenpet.
Foreign notices of the Bene Israel go back at least to 1768, when Yechezkel Rahabi wrote to a Dutch trading partner that they were widespread in Maharatta Province, and observed two Jewish observances, recital of the Shema and observation of Shabbat rest. They claim that they descend from 14 Jewish men and women, equally divided by gender, who survived the shipwreck of refugees from persecution or political turmoil, and came ashore at Navagaon near Alibag, 20 miles south of Mumbai, some 17 to 19 centuries ago. They were instructed in the rudiments of normative Judaism by Cochin Jews. Their Jewishness is controversial, and initially was not accepted by the Rabbinate in Israel. Since 1964 however they intermarried throughout Israel and are now considered Israeli and Jewish in all respects.
They are divided into sub-castes which do not intermarry: the dark-skinned “Kara” and fair-skinned “Gora.” The latter are believed to be lineal descendants of the shipwreck survivors, while the former are considered to descend from concubinage of a male with local women. They were nicknamed the shanivār telī (“Saturday oil-pressers”) by the local population as they abstained from work on Saturdays. Bene Israel communities and synagogues are situated in Pen, Mumbai, Alibag, Pune and Ahmedabad with smaller communities scattered around India. The largest synagogue in Asia outside Israel is in Pune (Ohel David Synagogue).
Mumbai had a thriving Bene Israel community until the 1950s to 1960s when many families from the community emigrated to the fledgling state of Israel, where they are known as Hodi’im (Indians). The Bene Israel community has risen to many positions of prominence in Israel. In India itself the Bene Israel community has shrunk considerably with many of the old Synagogues falling into disuse.
Unlike many parts of the world, Jews have historically lived in India without any instances of anti-Semitism from the local majority populace, the Hindus. However, Jews were persecuted by the Portuguese during their control of Goa.[verification needed]
South Asian Jews and Baghdadi Jews
The first known Baghdadi Jewish immigrant to India, Joseph Semah, arrived in the port city of Surat in 1730. He and other early immigrants established a synagogue and cemetery in Surat, though most of the city’s Jewish community eventually moved to Bombay (Mumbai), where they established a new synagogue and cemetery. They were traders and quickly became one of the most prosperous communities in the city. As philanthropists, some donated their wealth for public building projects. The Sassoon Docks and David Sassoon Library are some of the famous landmarks still standing today.
The synagogue in Surat was eventually razed; the cemetery, though in poor condition, can still be seen on the Katargam-Amroli road. One of the graves within is that of Moseh Tobi, buried in 1769, who was described as ‘ha-Nasi ha-Zaken’ (The Elder Prince) by David Solomon Sassoon in his book A History of the Jews in Baghdad (Simon Wallenburg Press, 2006, ISBN 184356002X).
Baghdadi Jewish populations spread beyond Bombay to other parts of India, with an important community forming in Calcutta (Kolkata). Scions of this community did well in trade (particularly jute and tea), and in later years contributed officers to the army. One, Lt-Gen J. F. R. Jacob PVSM, became state governor of Goa (1998–1999), then Punjab, and later served as administrator of Chandigarh. Pramila (Esther Victoria Abraham) became the first ever Miss India, in 1947.
The Bnei Menashe are a group of more than 9,000 people from the northeastern Indian states of Mizoram and Manipur who practice a form of biblical Judaism and claim descent from one of the Lost Tribes of Israel. They were originally headhunters and animists, and converted to Christianity at the beginning of the 20th century, but began converting to Judaism in the 1970s.
There are a few families in Andhra Pradesh who follow Judaism. Many among them follow the customs of Orthodox Jews, like wearing long beards by men and using head coverings (men) and hair coverings (women) all the time.
Judaism in Delhi is primarily focused on the expatriate community who work in Delhi, as well as Israeli diplomats and a small local community. In Paharganj, Chabad has set up a synagogue and religious center in a backpacker area regularly visited by Israeli tourists.
The majority of Indian Jews have “made Aliyah” (migrated) to Israel since the creation of the modern state in 1948. Over 70,000 Indian Jews now live in Israel (over 1% of Israel’s total population). Of the remaining 5,000, the largest community is concentrated in Mumbai, where 3,500 have stayed over from the over 30,000 Jews registered there in the 1940s, divided into Bene Israel and Baghdadi Jews, though the Baghdadi Jews refused to recognize the B’nei Israel as Jews, and withheld dispensing charity to them for that reason. There are reminders of Jewish localities in Kerala still left such as Synagogues. The majority of Jews from the old British-Indian capital of Calcutta (Kolkata) have also migrated to Israel over the last six decades.
Notable Jews of Indian descent
- Eli Ben-Menachem, Israeli politician
- Jacqueline Bhabha, lecturer at Harvard Law School and Harvard Kennedy School of Government
- Ranjit Chaudhry (1955 – 2020), Bollywood actor
- Anil Melwin Machado, Yoga & Kalaripayyattu Master.
- David Abraham Cheulkar, Bollywood actor
- Isaac David Kehimkar, lepidopterist, butterfly expert based in Navi Mumbai.
- Reuben David (1912 – 1989) zoologist
- Esther David (March 17, 1945— ), Jewish-Indian author, an artist and a sculptor
- Nadira, Bollywood actress
- Karen David, British-Canadian actress
- Dr Abraham Erulkar, personal physician to Mahatma Gandhi, father of Lila Erulkar
- Lila Erulkar, First Lady of Cyprus (1993–2003) and wife of Glafcos Clerides, president of the Republic of Cyprus
- Nissim Ezekiel, poet, playwright, editor and art-critic
- Lieutenant General J F R Jacob, former Chief of Staff of the Indian Army’s Eastern Command, and former Governor of Punjab and Goa
- Vice Admiral Benjamin Abraham Samson, Indian Navy Admiral, former Flag Officer Commanding Indian Fleet
- (Hakham) Ezra Reuben David Barook, a High Priest in Jerusalem in 1856. He travelled to India and settled in Calcutta.
- Gerry Judah, artist and designer
- Ellis Kadoorie and Elly Kadoorie, philanthropists
- Horace Kadoorie, philanthropist
- Anish Kapoor, sculptor
- Lillian (actress), Indian film actress
- Samson Kehimkar, musician
- Ezekiel Isaac Malekar, Bene Israel rabbi
- Ruby Myers, Bollywood actress of the 1920s known as Sulochana
- David Cheulkar, Bollywood actor
- Firoza Begum, Indian actress born as ‘Erin Daniels’
- Pearl Padamsee, theatre personality
- Joseph Rabban, was given copper plates of special grants from the Chera ruler Bhaskara Ravivarman II from Kerala
- David and Simon Reuben, businessmen
- Abraham Barak Salem, Cochin Jewish Indian nationalist leader
- Lalchanhima Sailo, rabbi and founder of Chhinlung Israel People’s Convention
- David Sassoon, businessman
- Albert Abdullah David Sassoon, British Indian merchant
- Sassoon David Sassoon, philanthropist and benefactor of greater Indian Jewish community
- Solomon Sopher, Jewish community leader in Mumbai
- Bensiyon Songavkar, professional cricketer
- Esther Victoria Abraham, also known as Pramila, first Miss India
- Fleur Ezekiel – Bene Israel model, chosen as Miss India World in 1959
- Sheila Singh Paul, paediatrician, founder and director of Kalawati Saran Children’s Hospital, New Delhi; pioneer in polio vaccination
- Ruby Daniel, Israeli author of Cochin Jewish origin
- Leela Samson, dancer, choreographer, and actress
- Jael Silliman, Baghdadi Indian Jewish author based in Kolkata
- Bene Ephraim
- Bnei Menashe
- Cochin Jews
- Desi Jews
- Paradesi Jews
- Sephardic Jews in India
- Christianity in India
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FR EEXAMPLE, INTELLGIENCE IS LIE BILLGY AD MEDCINE AND – KNWOLEDGE IS LIKE – THE STORY OF INDIVIDUAL PATIENETS – LIKE TODAY – SEE HERE – I GT A SPAINRIN WHEN I WAS – LIFTING THIS – W EIGHT – OR SMETHING LIKE THAT – NOW, I DNT LIKE – THINGS THAT JUST AHEV KNWLEDGE INTHEM – I MENA ITS NOT THAT I HATE KNWOLEDGE OR I DISLIKE IT -ITS JST THAT I AM LAZY AND I WANT AND SEEK AND RPEFER TOINTELLGINECE OVER KNWLEDGE – LIKE – FOR EXAMPLE? LIKE FOR EXAMPLE I SAY MANY TIMES THAT I HATE EXAMPELS, EXAMPELS MEANS STRIES, LIKE FOR EXAMPLE? LIKE FOR EXAMPLE FR EMA DN BILL CLINTON – THE ECLETCION OF – 2012 – AND THAT OF 2016 AND THAT OF 202O CAN BE EXPLAINED IN SME – SHORT SENTENCES – WHICH WULD BE INTELLGENCE BASE DLIKE HERE – HERE AND THERE – ND HERE- IS THESE 3 TO 6 POINTS WHICH ARE IN DIRECT CNFLCIT WITH – A B C D E F G – – AND NO MROE THAN 6 PINTS THAT ARE OF FUDNDEMNEATL ESSENCE TO THE BEING, THE FABRIC AND THE EXETENCE F USA AND SHIT – CONTRARY TO WHAT U CAN HEAR THE P STORY TELLERS – DAILY – AND EVEYR HRU TALKING ON TV AND TWITTER ABUT BIDNE – – ME IS EMANS FR EXAMPLE, – PEPELS G AND WTEET AND TALK AND TV AND SHIT N TIWTETR – EVRSUS – AJAY MISHRA AND BILL CLINTN – SAY SHIT ON BIDEN AND BEFRE THAT WHO WILL MOST LIKELY BE THE NOMIMEEN E., ALSO, LAST POINT – INTELLGENCE LENDS ITSELF TO – SAYING I TLD U SO – MEANS EX ANTE IS BETETR WHEN ITS BACKED BY INTELLIGENCE – AND – STORIES – ARE WHAT HAPPEEND – AND HOW THEY HAPNDD – SO, INTELELIGENCE – IF U DLIKE EXAMPLE FO PURE SCIENCES – IS AN AID IN – LIKE WHAT – WILL – HAPPEN – AND KNWOLEDGE IS AFETR THE FCT -LIEK WHAT HAPENED -WITHA SQUETSION AMRK., I STUDIED AT IIT – AND ITS A BIT MROE – FUNDEMNTAL HEAVY EVEN WITHIN THE TEHR IITS AND NOW ITS – DEGRADED – BUT IIT USED TO BE SHEER – TEST OF INTELLIGENCE NT KNWLEDGE – LIKE HOW NOW ITS MRE TLTING TWARD HARD WRK, BEFRE IT WAS FUNDEMANTAL ORITEINEENED – LIKE CONCEPTUALLY – SMART – YES OR NOT – WS HOW IIT WAS – AND NW, ITS LIKE HARD WORK WHERE – A BIT OF ROTE LEARNING IS INVOVE D- YE SYE I NW – STRIIES – ARE OFR THE NVELISTS -THAT WHY BARACK OBAMA IS A WRITER – HE LIKES STORIES – LIKE WSNT 2008 A STORY WE LIKE TO BE LIKE NOSTRDOUMUS – WE LIKE T – BEIRFLY SAY – HERE IS 6 – AND HERE IS EX ANTE – AND BIDNE WILL WIN AND YES WHEN WE MAKE A CASE FOR LIKE – LETS SAY KAMALA – OVER SOMEONE ESE, WE TRY T BE LIKE HOW BRHMINS TALK – WHICH IS CNCEPTUAL AND FUNDAMENTAL, IF U SITLL DNT UNDERSTAND THEN – I CANT EXPLAIN 1:58 AM (2 minutes ago) to me Someone just viewed: “FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO HILLARY CLINTON AJAY AND BILL CLINTON ARE NATRUAL PEOPLE. AND FUNDAMENTAL BUBBA OF COURSE KNOWS MORE – BUT AJAY PREFERS INTELLIGENCE OVER KNOWLEDGE” People on thread: Yoni Netanyahu Olga Blog Post By Email Device: PC Location: Chicago, IL
1:58 AM (28 minutes ago)
Someone just viewed: “FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO HILLARY CLINTON AJAY AND BILL CLINTON ARE NATRUAL PEOPLE. AND FUNDAMENTAL BUBBA OF COURSE KNOWS MORE – BUT AJAY PREFERS INTELLIGENCE OVER KNOWLEDGE”
Location: Chicago, IL
HOPE U UNDERSTAD, THIS IS WHAT I REPEAT ALMOST EVEYR MONTH
I DO NT HAVE A BETETR WAY TO COMMUNICATE IF THIS DESNT GET THRU
HOPE U UNDERSTAD, THIS IS WHAT I REPEAT ALMOST EVEYR MONTH
I DO NT HAVE A BETETR WAY TO COMMUNICATE IF THIS DESNT GET THRU
Maths behind the rainbow
When the great mathematician Isaac Newton explained the colours of the rainbow with refraction the poet John Keats was horrified. Keats complained (through poetry of course) that a mathematical explanation robbed these marvels of nature of their magic, conquering “all mysteries by rule and line”. But as we will see, the mathematical explanation, requiring just the basic geometry of lines and circles, is just as elegant as the rainbows themselves.
Bent on refraction
The visible spectrum from violet (left) to red (right).
The colours of the rainbow are a result of refraction splitting the light into its constituent components, just as happens when light shines through a prism. The white light that arrives from the Sun is a combination of electromagnetic waves with varying frequencies. You see white when this mix of frequencies hits your eye at the same time, but when your eye catches an individual wave on its own, you perceive a particular colour.
Waves with frequencies between around 670 and 780 THz are perceived as shades of violet. On the other end of the spectrum are waves with frequencies between around 400 and 480 THz, which are perceived as shades of red. All the other colours come from frequencies in between these two bands. Electromagnetic waves of other frequencies can’t be perceived at all by the human eye.
Figure 1: A ray of light being refracted, reflected and then refracted again.
When a ray of sunlight hits a spherical water droplet some of it will be reflected by the surface of the droplet, but some of it will enter it. As it enters, the light ray will be bent, or refracted. It’s the same phenomenon you see when you stick a straw in a water glass. The ray then continues until it hits the back of the droplet. Some of the light will exit, but some of it will be reflected back, leaving the droplet on the other side and being refracted again in the process. See figure 1.
Refraction is a result of a ray of light being slowed down as it passes from one medium to another. For a very crude analogy think of pushing a shopping trolley from the road onto grass at an angle: it will change direction because the side of the trolley that hits the grass first will be slowed down first.
Figure 2: Light of different frequencies is refracted by different amounts.
When light from the Sun travels through a vacuum (and to a very good approximation through air) all frequencies travel at the same speed , roughly 300,000 km per second. As the ray of light passes into water, the frequency, and therefore colour, remains the same. However, its speed will change by an amount that depends on the frequency. This is because the atomic structure of water interacts differently with waves of different frequencies. A measure of the slowing-down of light with frequency is given by the refractive index Its value depends not only on the frequency but also on the medium the light is entering (in this case water, as indicated by the subscript ). The index is defined as
The refractive index barely changes as the frequency varies: is around 1.34 for the violet end of the spectrum and around 1.33 for the red end. But this small variation is enough to split sunlight into the beautiful spectrum of colours we see in a rainbow. (The refractive index also varies slightly with temperature, but we can ignore this here.)
Figure 3: The diagram shows the cross-section of the water droplet containing the incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal. The angles α and β are related by Snell’s law.
Just how much the light of different frequencies is bent when entering the droplet is described by Snell’s law. The law says that the refracted ray of light lies in the plane formed by the incident ray and the normal at the point of incidence – the normal is the line that passes through the point where the ray hits the droplet and is perpendicular to the surface of the droplet. Since we’re assuming the droplet to be spherical, the normal in this case is just the extended radius of the droplet, connecting its centre to the point of incidence.
Snell’s law also tells us that the angle by which a ray is refracted is given by this equation:
Here and are the angles shown in figure 3 and and are the refractive indices of air and water, respectively, for light with frequency . As air is very similar to a vacuum, the refractive index is very nearly equal to 1 for all frequencies. Thus, if a light ray hits the droplet so that , then red light with a refractive index 1.33 has
(The result is rounded to two decimal places.) Violet light with a refractive index of 1.34 has
It’s these different refraction angles for the different frequencies of light that gives a rainbow its colours.
Catching rainbow rays
But why do we see each of the colours forming a perfect circular arc? To understand the shape of the rainbow, think of light from the Sun as coming down in parallel rays and striking a particular water droplet in the air. Using Snell’s law and the law of reflection (that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection), we can work out by how much a ray is deviated in terms of the angle at which it first hits the droplet. In other words, by what angle it is being turned as it is refracted, reflected and then refracted again (see figure 4). This angle will of course be different for each frequency, or colour of light.
By staring hard at figure 4 you can convince yourself that the deviation is given by the formula
Figure 4: Working out the angle of deviation.
From Snell’s law, we know that we can substitute
in the above expression. (We are taking the refractive index of air to be 1 here.)
Figure 5 shows the graph of , taking the refractive index for a particular shade of red. Notice that it has a minimum at a value somewhere in the region of .
Figure 5: The graph of Df(α).
This minimum angle is what gives us the rainbow. Figure 6 shows a 2D cross-section of the droplet containing a bunch of rays for our refractive index . The ray entering at the minimum angle in this cross-section is shown in red. It is called the rainbow ray. The rays that hit the droplet near the rainbow ray (with an angle close to ) cluster close to it during their passage through the droplet and when they emerge. So if your eye happens to catch the rainbow ray from this droplet after it’s emerged, you will see a whole bunch of other rays too, making the light that comes from our droplet particularly intense. Since all the clustering rays are of the same colour, our particular shade of red which has , the droplet lights up red in the sky.
Figure 6: The rainbow ray is shown in red. A cluster of rays emerges from the droplet near the rainbow ray, while rays that emerge elsewhere are more spaced out.
The fact that emerging red rays cluster near the rainbow ray is a consequence of being the minimum of the function . You can see this in figure 7. Take an interval centred on the minimum and an interval of the same width centred elsewhere. The range of deviation angles for values in (given by the interval ) is much smaller than the range of deviation angles for values in (given by the interval ). Thus, rays that hit the droplet with angles in stick closer together than rays with angles in .
If you don’t believe the picture, here is a proof.
Figure 7: The interval J1 is smaller than the interval J2.
So you see a red dot in the sky for every droplet from which your eye manages to catch an outgoing red rainbow ray. To see where in the sky these droplets are relative to you, let’s first work out the exact value of . Solving to find the minimum gives
(See here for the details).
Substituting (for our particular shade of red) gives and .
Now if an emerging rainbow ray from a droplet meets your eye, then this means that the emerging ray makes an angle with the line shown in figure 8. It’s the line you get from extending the ray of sunlight that would pass straight through your eye if your head wasn’t in the way. (Remember we’re assuming that the rays from the Sun are parallel.) Let’s call the rainbow angle. Of course it depends on the frequency and therefore on colour.
Figure 8: The deviated rainbow ray from your droplet makes a 42.52 degree angle with the line L.
If you take all lines that emanate from your eye and make a angle with , what you get is a cone (see figure 9). The droplets that light up red for you all lie on this cone: if they didn’t, you wouldn’t be catching their red rainbow ray. But when you look along the surface of a cone from its vertex, as your eye is doing, all you see is a circle. You can try this by rolling a sheet of paper up into a cone shape and peering through the little hole at the tip. The rainbow comes from droplets that lie on the cone at different distances from your eye, some can be near and others can be far. But your eye can’t distinguish the distances, all it sees is red light mingling together to form a circular arc that appears to be located somewhere in the distance. The reason why you don’t see the full circle is that the Earth gets in the way. Unless you’re above the water droplets, for example when looking down from a plane, in which case you can see a beautiful circular rainbow.
Figure 9: The droplets you see light up in the sky lie on the surface of a cone.
The same reasoning goes for all the other colours of the spectrum: they appear as circular arcs. But the varying indices of refraction give a different rainbow angle for each colour. For example, violet light with gives and , so the rainbow angle in this case is . Thus, the rainbow appears as a nested sequence of circles of colours in order of their refractive indices, or, equivalently, in order of their frequencies: red at the top all the way through to violet at the bottom.
This explanation also shows why you only ever see a rainbow when you’re standing with your back to the Sun: that’s the only way you can catch rainbow rays coming from droplets. It also explains why the sky appears much brighter below the rainbow than above. Since the vast majority of rays leaving a droplet do so above the rainbow ray (see figure 6), you won’t catch any rays from droplets that are “above” the rainbow (that is, outside the cones for the various colours). So you won’t see any reflected light from these droplets. However, your eye does catch reflected light from droplets “below” the rainbow (droplets that lie inside the cones) and it’s this light that makes the sky below the rainbow appear brighter. It appears as white light because non-rainbow rays for different colours, coming to your eye from different droplets, are mixed together.
The rainbow geometry also shows that any rainbow you see is yours and yours alone: whatever a person standing next to you might see, it’ll come from a different set of water droplets and therefore it’ll be a different rainbow.
Sometimes, if you are lucky, you might see a second, slightly fainter rainbow above the main one. The secondary rainbow is a result of light rays being reflected twice within the water droplets. The rainbow angles for the various colours are around 51 degrees in this case, which is why the secondary rainbow is seen higher in the sky. The double reflection also means that the colours of the secondary rainbow appear in reverse order, with violet at the bottom and red at the top. Here’s the original sketch by René Descartes, who first explained the shape of the rainbow, showing both the primary and secondary rainbow. The double reflection corresponding to the secondary rainbow is traced in red.
Descartes’ sketch of the primary and secondary rainbow.
It is even possible in theory (though it hardly ever happens in practice) to see rainbows coming from three, four or more reflections within the droplets. But I’ll leave these calculations to you.