LIVE NOWUPDATED 15MIN AGO Likud derides Lapid’s military record after Netanyahu criticism Ruling party denies PM broke ambiguity on Syria strikes for political reasons, says security experience of Yesh Atid chief amounts to ‘a f ew articles’ in IDF newspaper 15min ago :SO: WHATS THIS CALLLED OLGA? – WELL, FIRST, ITS CAELDD THAT BENNY G WONT TAKE VOTES AWAY FROM BIBI VOTE SHARE – BUT WILL PICK UP FROM THE DEBRIS LEFT FROM THE LEFT AND LABOR – SO, IN LLC – LIST PRO GRAM – IS BENNGY G SAYING JUST SECURITY OR IS IT GREEN UNIFRMS AND HOPE ITEM SONG? WELL, SO? WELL, SO BELKA, IS HOPE SUP POSED TO BE A COPY RIGHT OF LIVNI AND WHTS HIS NAME YES TERE IS HOPE, THE YESH ADIT PARTY ? SO, HOW WILL GET TO THE LIST MANAGEMNT PORGRAM WHEN IT TAKES 3. 5 % TO GET A CHANCE FOR A DANCE IN KNESETTE – AND NO ONE CAN COMPLETE THE LIST AS TH ERE IS ONLY 120 SLOTS AND NAFTALIA BENNET IT SEEMS ISNT GONNA MAKE IT TO THE PROMISED SLOT ? WELL SO NOW, ITS ABOUT LIST AND THEM NUMBER MANAGEMNET WITH SWORDS AND PO

LIVE NOWUPDATED 15MIN AGO Likud derides Lapid’s military record after Netanyahu criticism Ruling party denies PM broke ambiguity on Syria strikes for political reasons, says security experience of Yesh Atid chief amounts to ‘a few articles’ in IDF newspaper 15min ago :SO: WHATS THIS CALLLED OLGA? –

WELL, FIRST, ITS CAELDD THAT BENNY G WONT TAKE VOTES AWAY FROM BIBI VOTE SHARE – BUT WILL PICK UP FROM THE DEBRIS LEFT FROM THE LEFT AND LABOR

– SO, IN LLC – LIST PROGRAM – IS BENNGY G SAYING JUST SECURITY OR IS IT GREEN UNIFRMS AND HOPE ITEM SONG? WELL, SO? WELL, SO BELKA, IS HOPE SUPPOSED TO BE A COPY RIGHT OF LIVNI AND WHTS HIS NAME YES THERE IS HOPE, THE YESH ADIT PARTY ?

SO, HOW WILL GET TO THE LIST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WHEN IT TAKES 3. 5 % TO GET A CHANCE FOR A DANCE IN KNESETTE – ?

AND NO ONE CAN COMPLETE THE LIST ON HIS OR HER OWN

AS THERE IS ONLY 120 SLOTS AND NAFTALIA BENNET IT SEEMS ISNT GONNA MAKE IT TO THE PROMISED SLOT ?

WELL SO NOW, ITS ABOUT LIST AND THEM NUMBER MANAGEMENT WITH WORDS AND POSITIONING SLOTS –

SO, HENCE – IS DAN LAHAV AND BIBI THERE ? –

SO, NOW, ITS ALL ABOUT TWO THINGS –

THE GANNT CHART

AND THE LIST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

: SO FROM HOW MAKES THE LIST – THE FINAL LIST ?

LIKE HOW ?

SEEN THIS

SO, ITS CALLED ARITHMETIC OF THE LIST IN PLUS 972 – BARACK – REGARDS AND IS KAMALA HARRIS AVILABLE FOR A MINUTE ?

U KNOW HERE – WE HAVE RESUME VERIFICATION SERVICES – 

WELL, HELLO SEE HEBREW AND RUSSHIAN MATHEMATCIS

Pigeonhole principle

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Pigeons in holes. Here there are n = 10 pigeons in m = 9 holes. Since 10 is greater than 9, the pigeonhole principle says that at least one hole has more than one pigeon.

ME MEANS – BENNY GANTZ CAN SAY – AND HAS A RIGHT TO SAY – ON – SAFE SAFETTY SECURITY – BUT  VIDEO OF DEMOLITION CREW – AND HOPE IN THE SAME SLOT IS A BIT OF A STRETCH, WELL, AT LEATS OPTICS, DOESNT LEND IT WELL – ME THINKS..

NOW, HOW TO GET – WINE ? -WELL – WHEN U HAVE LISTS NOT LIKE USA WHERE THERE ARE ONLY TWO PARTIES – THEN – I GUESS ITS A QUESTION OF – FROM WHOM – AND THROUGH WHERE – IS THE REST – IN THE LLC – L FOR LABOR L FOR LEFT C FOR CENTER MEANS GANT CAN GET HIS GANT CHART – FROM WHERE ? –  FROM WINE ? – OR THROUGH WINE ? – SO, IF BIBI EQAUL TO SAFE PLUS SAFETY AND SECURITY – -OR IS BIBI GONNA GET WINE EVEN ? BYW SHOWING RUSSHIA, INDIA AND OMAN ?

– SO, ATTACK – FROM CENTER BY GANTZ IF HOPE DOESNT

IF HOPE  DOEST MAKE THE CUT REALLY THEN CAN WE REDUCE THE SIZE OF THE LUNCH FROM BIBI’S MENU ITEMS ? – BY ATTACKING HIM ON  GREEN UNIFORMS –

 

In mathematics, the pigeonhole principle states that if {\displaystyle n}n items are put into {\displaystyle m}mcontainers, with {\displaystyle n>m}n>m, then at least one container must contain more than one item.[1] This theorem is exemplified in real life by truisms like “in any group of three gloves there must be at least two left gloves or at least two right gloves”. It is an example of a counting argument. This seemingly obvious statement can be used to demonstrate possibly unexpected results; for example, that there must be (at least) two people in London who have the same number of hairs on their heads.

The first formalization of the idea is believed to have been made by Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet in 1834 under the name Schubfachprinzip (“drawer principle” or “shelf principle”). For this reason it is also commonly called Dirichlet’s box principleor Dirichlet’s drawer principle.[2] This should not be confused with Dirichlet’s principle, a term introduced by Riemann that refers to the minimum principle for harmonic functions.

The principle has several generalizations and can be stated in various ways. In a more quantified version: for natural numbers {\displaystyle k}k and {\displaystyle m}m, if {\displaystyle n=km+1}{\displaystyle n=km+1} objects are distributed among {\displaystyle m}m sets, then the pigeonhole principle asserts that at least one of the sets will contain at least {\displaystyle k+1}k+1 objects.[3] For arbitrary {\displaystyle n}n and {\displaystyle m}m this generalizes to {\displaystyle k+1=\lfloor (n-1)/m\rfloor +1=\lceil n/m\rceil ,}{\displaystyle k+1=\lfloor (n-1)/m\rfloor +1=\lceil n/m\rceil ,}where {\displaystyle \lfloor \cdots \rfloor }\lfloor \cdots \rfloor and {\displaystyle \lceil \cdots \rceil }{\displaystyle \lceil \cdots \rceil } denote the floor and ceiling functions, respectively.

Though the most straightforward application is to finite sets (such as pigeons and boxes), it is also used with infinite sets that cannot be put into one-to-one correspondence. To do so requires the formal statement of the pigeonhole principle, which is “there does not exist an injective function whose codomain is smaller than its domain. Advanced mathematical proofs like Siegel’s lemma build upon this more general concept.

Contents

Etymology[edit]


Pigeon-hole messageboxes at Stanford University, nearer to “Schubfach” than the more picturesque dovecotes

Dirichlet published his works in both French and German, using either the German Schubfach (he wrote about distributing pearls), or the French tiroir. The strict original meaning of both corresponds to the English drawer, an open-topped box that can be slid in and out of the cabinet that contains it. These terms were morphed to the word pigeonhole, standing for a small open space in a desk, cabinet, or wall for keeping letters or papers, metaphorically rooted in the structures that house pigeons.

Since Dirichlet’s father was a postmaster, and furniture with pigeonholes is commonly used for storing or sorting things into many categories (like letters in a post office or room keys in a hotel), the translation pigeonhole may be a perfect rendering of Dirichlet’s metaphor. That understanding of the word, referring to some furniture features, is fading —especially among those who do not speak English natively but as a lingua franca in the scientific world— in favour of the more pictorial interpretation, literally involving pigeons and holes. The suggestive, though not misleading interpretation of “pigeonhole” as “dovecote” has lately found its way back to a German “re-translation” of the “pigeonhole”-principle as the “Taubenschlag”-principle.[4]

Besides the original terms “Schubfach-Prinzip” in German[5] and “Principe de tiroirs” in French[6], other literal translations are still in use in Polish (“zasada szufladkowa”), Bulgarian (“принцип на чекмеджетата”), Turkish (“çekmece ilkesi”), Hungarian(“skatulyaelv”), Italian (“principio dei cassetti”), Dutch (“ladenprincipe “), Danish (“Skuffeprincippet”), Persian (“اصل لانه کبوتری”), Chinese (“抽屉原理”), and Japanese (“引き出し論法”).

Examples[edit]

Sock-picking[edit]

Assume a drawer contains a mixture of black socks and blue socks, each of which can be worn on either foot, and that you are pulling a number of socks from the drawer without looking. What is the minimum number of pulled socks required to guarantee a pair of the same color? Using the pigeonhole principle, to have at least one pair of the same color (m = 2 holes, one per color) using one pigeonhole per color, you need to pull only three socks from the drawer (n = 3 items). Either you have three of one color, or you have two of one color and one of the other.

Hand-shaking[edit]

If there are n people who can shake hands with one another (where n > 1), the pigeonhole principle shows that there is always a pair of people who will shake hands with the same number of people. In this application of the principle, the ‘hole’ to which a person is assigned is the number of hands shaken by that person. Since each person shakes hands with some number of people from 0 to n − 1, there are n possible holes. On the other hand, either the ‘0’ hole or the ‘n − 1′ hole or both must be empty, for it is impossible (if n > 1!) for some person to shake hands with everybody else while some person shakes hands with nobody. This leaves n people to be placed into at most n − 1 non-empty holes, so that the principle applies.

Hair-counting[edit]

We can demonstrate there must be at least two people in London with the same number of hairs on their heads as follows.[7]Since a typical human head has an average of around 150,000 hairs, it is reasonable to assume (as an upper bound) that no one has more than 1,000,000 hairs on their head (m = 1 million holes). There are more than 1,000,000 people in London (n is bigger than 1 million items). Assigning a pigeonhole to each number of hairs on a person’s head, and assign people to pigeonholes according to the number of hairs on their head, there must be at least two people assigned to the same pigeonhole by the 1,000,001st assignment (because they have the same number of hairs on their heads) (or, n > m). For the average case (m = 150,000) with the constraint: fewest overlaps, there will be at most one person assigned to every pigeonhole and the 150,001st person assigned to the same pigeonhole as someone else. In the absence of this constraint, there may be empty pigeonholes because the “collision” happens before we get to the 150,001st person. The principle just proves the existence of an overlap; it says nothing of the number of overlaps (which falls under the subject of probability distribution).

There is a passing, satirical, allusion in English to this version of the principle in A History of the Athenian Society, prefixed to “”A Supplement to the Athenian Oracle: Being a Collection of the Remaining Questions and Answers in the Old Athenian Mercuries””, (Printed for Andrew Bell, London, 1710).[8] It seems that the question whether there were any two persons in the World that have an equal number of hairs on their head? had been raised in The Athenian Mercury before 1704.[9][10]

Perhaps the first written reference to the pigeonhole principle appears in 1622 in a short sentence of the Latin work Selectæ Propositiones, by the French Jesuit Jean Leurechon,[11] where he wrote “It is necessary that two men have the same number of hairs, écus, or other things, as each other.”[12]

The birthday problem[edit]

The birthday problem asks, for a set of n randomly chosen people, what is the probability that some pair of them will have the same birthday? By the pigeonhole principle, if there are 367 people in the room, we know that there is at least one pair who share the same birthday, as there are only 366 possible birthdays to choose from (including February 29, if present). The birthday “paradox” refers to the result that even if the group is as small as 23 individuals, the probability that there is a pair of people with the same birthday is still above 50%. While at first glance this may seem surprising, it intuitively makes sense when considering that a comparison will actually be made between every possible pair of people rather than fixing one individual and comparing them solely to the rest of the group.

Team tournament[edit]

Imagine seven people who want to play in a tournament of teams (n = 7 items), with a limitation of only four teams (m = 4holes) to choose from. The pigeonhole principle tells us that they cannot all play for different teams; there must be at least one team featuring at least two of the seven players:

{\displaystyle \left\lfloor {\frac {n-1}{m}}\right\rfloor +1=\left\lfloor {\frac {7-1}{4}}\right\rfloor +1=\left\lfloor {\frac {6}{4}}\right\rfloor +1=1+1=2}{\displaystyle \left\lfloor {\frac {n-1}{m}}\right\rfloor +1=\left\lfloor {\frac {7-1}{4}}\right\rfloor +1=\left\lfloor {\frac {6}{4}}\right\rfloor +1=1+1=2}

Subset sum[edit]

Any subset of size six from the set S = {1,2,3,…,9} must contain two elements whose sum is 10. The pigeonholes will be labelled by the two element subsets {1,9}, {2,8}, {3,7}, {4,6} and the singleton {5}, five pigeonholes in all. When the six “pigeons” (elements of the size six subset) are placed into these pigeonholes, each pigeon going into the pigeonhole that has it contained in its label, at least one of the pigeonholes labelled with a two element subset will have two pigeons in it.[13]

Uses and applications[edit]

The principle can be used to prove that any lossless compression algorithm, provided it makes some inputs smaller (as the name compression suggests), will also make some other inputs larger. Otherwise, the set of all input sequences up to a given length L could be mapped to the (much) smaller set of all sequences of length less than L without collisions (because the compression is lossless), a possibility which the pigeonhole principle excludes.

A notable problem in mathematical analysis is, for a fixed irrational number a, to show that the set {[na]: n is an integer} of fractional parts is dense in [0, 1]. One finds that it is not easy to explicitly find integers n, m such that |nama| < e, where e > 0 is a small positive number and a is some arbitrary irrational number. But if one takes M such that 1/M < e, by the pigeonhole principle there must be n1, n2 ∈ {1, 2, …, M + 1} such that n1a and n2a are in the same integer subdivision of size 1/M (there are only M such subdivisions between consecutive integers). In particular, we can find n1, n2 such that n1a is in (p + k/M, p + (k + 1)/M), and n2a is in (q + k/M, q + (k + 1)/M), for some p, q integers and k in {0, 1, …, M − 1}. We can then easily verify that (n2 − n1)a is in (qp − 1/M, qp + 1/M). This implies that [na] < 1/M < e, where n = n2 − n1 or n = n1 − n2. This shows that 0 is a limit point of {[na]}. We can then use this fact to prove the case for p in (0, 1]: find n such that [na] < 1/M < e; then if p ∈ (0, 1/M], we are done. Otherwise p ∈ (j/M, (j + 1)/M], and by setting k = sup{rN : r[na] < j/M}, one obtains |[(k + 1)na] − p| < 1/M < e.

Variants occurring in well known proofs: In the proof of the pumping lemma for regular languages, a version that mixes finite and infinite sets is used: If infinitely many objects are placed into finitely many boxes, then there exist two objects that share a box.[14] In Fisk’s solution of the Art gallery problem a sort of converse is used: If n objects are placed into k boxes, then there is a box containing at most n/k objects.[15]

Alternate formulations[edit]

The following are alternate formulations of the pigeonhole principle.

  1. If n objects are distributed over m places, and if n > m, then some place receives at least two objects.[1]

  2. (equivalent formulation of 1) If n objects are distributed over n places in such a way that no place receives more than one object, then each place receives exactly one object.[1]

  3. If n objects are distributed over m places, and if n < m, then some place receives no object.

  4. (equivalent formulation of 3) If n objects are distributed over n places in such a way that no place receives no object, then each place receives exactly one object.[16]

Strong form[edit]

Let q1, q2, …, qn be positive integers. If

{\displaystyle q_{1}+q_{2}+\cdots +q_{n}-n+1}q_{1}+q_{2}+\cdots +q_{n}-n+1

objects are distributed into n boxes, then either the first box contains at least q1 objects, or the second box contains at least q2objects, …, or the nth box contains at least qn objects.[17]

The simple form is obtained from this by taking q1 = q2 = … = qn = 2, which gives n + 1 objects. Taking q1 = q2 = … = qn = rgives the more quantified version of the principle, namely:

Let n and r be positive integers. If n(r – 1) + 1 objects are distributed into n boxes, then at least one of the boxes contains r or more of the objects.[18]

This can also be stated as, if k discrete objects are to be allocated to n containers, then at least one container must hold at least {\displaystyle \lceil k/n\rceil }\lceil k/n\rceil objects, where {\displaystyle \lceil x\rceil }\lceil x\rceil is the ceiling function, denoting the smallest integer larger than or equal to x. Similarly, at least one container must hold no more than {\displaystyle \lfloor k/n\rfloor }\lfloor k/n\rfloor objects, where {\displaystyle \lfloor x\rfloor }\lfloor x\rfloor is the floor function, denoting the largest integer smaller than or equal to x.

Generalizations of the pigeonhole principle[edit]

A probabilistic generalization of the pigeonhole principle states that if n pigeons are randomly put into m pigeonholes with uniform probability 1/m, then at least one pigeonhole will hold more than one pigeon with probability

{\displaystyle 1-{\frac {(m)_{n}}{m^{n}}},}{\displaystyle 1-{\frac {(m)_{n}}{m^{n}}},}

where (m)n is the falling factorial m(m − 1)(m − 2)…(mn + 1). For n = 0 and for n = 1 (and m > 0), that probability is zero; in other words, if there is just one pigeon, there cannot be a conflict. For n > m (more pigeons than pigeonholes) it is one, in which case it coincides with the ordinary pigeonhole principle. But even if the number of pigeons does not exceed the number of pigeonholes (nm), due to the random nature of the assignment of pigeons to pigeonholes there is often a substantial chance that clashes will occur. For example, if 2 pigeons are randomly assigned to 4 pigeonholes, there is a 25% chance that at least one pigeonhole will hold more than one pigeon; for 5 pigeons and 10 holes, that probability is 69.76%; and for 10 pigeons and 20 holes it is about 93.45%. If the number of holes stays fixed, there is always a greater probability of a pair when you add more pigeons. This problem is treated at much greater length in the birthday paradox.

A further probabilistic generalization is that when a real-valued random variable X has a finite mean E(X), then the probability is nonzero that X is greater than or equal to E(X), and similarly the probability is nonzero that X is less than or equal to E(X). To see that this implies the standard pigeonhole principle, take any fixed arrangement of n pigeons into m holes and let X be the number of pigeons in a hole chosen uniformly at random. The mean of X is n/m, so if there are more pigeons than holes the mean is greater than one. Therefore, X is sometimes at least 2.

Infinite sets[edit]

The pigeonhole principle can be extended to infinite sets by phrasing it in terms of cardinal numbers: if the cardinality of set Ais greater than the cardinality of set B, then there is no injection from A to B. However, in this form the principle is tautological, since the meaning of the statement that the cardinality of set A is greater than the cardinality of set B is exactly that there is no injective map from A to B. However, adding at least one element to a finite set is sufficient to ensure that the cardinality increases.

Another way to phrase the pigeonhole principle for finite sets is similar to the principle that finite sets are Dedekind finite: Let Aand B be finite sets. If there is a surjection from A to B that is not injective, then no surjection from A to B is injective. In fact no function of any kind from A to B is injective. This is not true for infinite sets: Consider the function on the natural numbers that sends 1 and 2 to 1, 3 and 4 to 2, 5 and 6 to 3, and so on.

There is a similar principle for infinite sets: If uncountably many pigeons are stuffed into countably many pigeonholes, there will exist at least one pigeonhole having uncountably many pigeons stuffed into it.

This principle is not a generalization of the pigeonhole principle for finite sets however: It is in general false for finite sets. In technical terms it says that if A and B are finite sets such that any surjective function from A to B is not injective, then there exists an element of b of B such that there exists a bijection between the preimage of b and A. This is a quite different statement, and is absurd for large finite cardinalities.

Quantum mechanics[edit]

Yakir Aharonov et al. have presented arguments that the pigeonhole principle may be violated in quantum mechanics, and proposed interferometric experiments to test the pigeonhole principle in quantum mechanics.[19]

Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

HELLO ISARELIS I HEARD U HAS ELECTIONS ? Netanyahu mocks top Iranian general: ‘Look at the state of your bases in Syria’ PM warns Qassem Soleimani against ‘interfering’ in Israeli election after unconfirmed report the head o f the al-Quds Force sought to strike Israel to bring down the premier By TOI STAFF Today, 6:27 pm 3 8 shares Composite: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, left, and Revolutionary Guards Gen. Qassem Soleimani (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90, Office of the Iranian Supreme Leader via AP) Composite: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, left, and Revolutionary Guards Gen. Qassem Soleimani (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90, Office of the Iranian Supreme Leader via AP) Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu derisively warned top Iranian general Qassem Soleimani Wednesday to examine “the state of Iranian bases he is trying to set up in Syria” instead of “interfering in the Israeli elections.” Netanyahu appeared to be responding to an unconfirmed report in a Kuwaiti paper accor

Netanyahu mocks top Iranian general: ‘Look at the state of your bases in Syria’

PM warns Qassem Soleimani against ‘interfering’ in Israeli election after unconfirmed report the head of the al-Quds Force sought to strike Israel to bring down the premier

By TOI STAFFToday, 6:27 pm 3

  • 8shares

Composite: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, left, and Revolutionary Guards Gen. Qassem Soleimani (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90, Office of the Iranian Supreme Leader via AP)Composite: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, left, and Revolutionary Guards Gen. Qassem Soleimani (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90, Office of the Iranian Supreme Leader via AP)

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu derisively warned top Iranian general Qassem Soleimani Wednesday to examine “the state of Iranian bases he is trying to set up in Syria” instead of “interfering in the [Israeli] elections.”

Netanyahu appeared to be responding to an unconfirmed report in a Kuwaiti paper according to which Soleimani, head of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards al-Quds Force, told Iranian leaders that strikes deep inside Israeli territory could bring down Netanyahu in the April 9 vote.

According to the report in al-Jarida, during a meeting with the Supreme National Security Council in Tehran Monday, Soleimani said that Netanyahu will likely only seek to escalate tensions along the Israeli-Syrian border in order to boost his popularity in the elections.

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He also allegedly called for a policy of firing three missiles in response to any Israeli airstrike in Syria.

Iranian Revolutionary Guards al-Quds Force commander Maj. Gen. Qassem Soleimani.(YouTube screenshot)

The report cited an unnamed “informed source” in Iran.

“Instead of intervening in the elections, Suleimani should look at the state of the Iranian bases he is trying to establish in Syria,” Netanyahu tweeted in an apparent response, referring to recent strikes by Israel targeting Iranian military infrastructure in Syria.

Netanyahu also vowed to “continue to fight against [Iran] as long as I am prime minister.”

Embedded video

PM of Israel
✔@IsraeliPM


Instead of interfering in the elections, Soleimani would do well to check the state of the Iranian bases that he is trying to establish in Syria. Our policy is clear and will not change: We are determined to prevent Iran from militarily entrenching itself in Syria against Israel.

172
10:50 PM – Jan 23, 2019

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Al-Jarida has been known to publish improbable-sounding stories about Israel, which have been promptly denied by involved parties.

On Sunday, Israel reportedly conducted a rare daylight missile attack on Iranian targets in Syria. In response, Iran fired a surface-to-surface missile from Syria at the northern Golan Heights, which was intercepted by the Iron Dome missile defense system over the Mount Hermon ski resort, according to the Israel Defense Forces.

Hours later, in the predawn hours of Monday morning, the Israel Air Force launched retaliatory strikes on Iranian targets near Damascus and on the Syrian air defense batteries that fired upon the attacking Israeli fighter jets, the army said.

An explosion, reportedly during Israeli airstrikes near Damascus, Syria, on January 21, 2019. (screen capture: YouTube)

Twenty-one people were killed in the Israeli raids in Syria early Monday, 12 of them Iranian fighters, a Britain-based Syrian war monitor said on Tuesday.

According to Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, 12 of those killed were members of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps; six were Syrian military fighters; and the other three were other non-Syrian nationals.

Israel in recent years has carried out hundreds of airstrikes in Syria against targets linked to Iran, which alongside its proxies and Russia is fighting on behalf of the regime of Syrian President Bashar Assad.

Someone just viewed: ON FOREIGN POLICY – USA, EUROPE. ISRAEL MIDDLE EAST RUSSIA `ETC – IN SIMPLE WORDS ..

sorry I HAD TO DELETE MY YOUTUBE ACCOUNT – WELL ASK JEWS AND MAYBE OBAMA AND CLINTON CAN TELL U WHY – WEL

HILALRY JI THERE ? -> WELL FOLKS – THIS EVEN WITHOUT SOME VIDEOS SHOULD GIVE U AN IDEA OF LONG AND SHORT RESUMES – BE IT FOR KAMALA HARRIS – OR THE DNC 2020 HOPEFULS OR THAM INDIANS AND RUSSHIANS AND JEWS –

HERE IS THE LINK -> http://yoninetanyahu.com/2018/01/10/on-foreign-policy-usa-europe-israel-middle-east-russia-etc-in-simple-words/

Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: Re: FROM OLGA – LESSONS IN ENGLISH AND WHAT NOT DTO DO, IN MATHS AND FRENCH -> HONEY -> IS IT CALLED DOB PLUS A PRIME NUMBER = 1987 ?

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Who Are The Jews of India?

WELL, THERE IS ONE SPY IN ISRAEL – HE IS INDIAN JEW – NAMEIS HOTMAN – ALTHAU HE SI NOR GURL – WE LIKES TO SAND RUMORSE THAT HE IS GURL NOR BOY.

From: My Jewish Learning <community>
Date: Wed, Jan 23, 2019 at 4:31 PM
Subject: Who Are The Jews of India?
To: <lednichenkoolga>

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Parashat Yitro
Exodus 18:1 – 20:23
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In this Torah portion, Moses tells his father-in-law, Jethro, about the miracle of the exodus. Jethro proclaims that the Israelite God is greater than all other gods, and he makes a sacrifice. Jethro then advises Moses to delegate leadership roles in order not to tire himself out. The Israelites camp at the bottom of Mount Sinai. After three days, the mountain fills with smoke, and God delivers the Ten Commandments to His people.
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Someone just viewed: FAREIENDS SEE THISE – IVE BECOME EXPARTS ON TIS SUBJACATS EVENA REGATDS HOTMAN AND WILLIAME CLINTONE

FARENDS SEE THIESE

http://yoninetanyahu.com/2018/11/07/fareiends-see-thise-ive-become-exparts-on-tis-subjacats-evena-regatds-hotman-and-williame-clintone/

https://www.google.com/search?q=FAREIENDS+SEE+THISE+-+IVE+BECOME+EXPARTS+ON+TIS+SUBJACATS+EVENA+REGATDS+HOTMAN+AND+WILLIAME+CLINTONE&num=30&pws=0&gl=us&nfpr=1&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUo8bcjYPgAhUZE7kGHboCDM8Q_AUIDygC&biw=1536&bih=754

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Israeli jets strike northern Gaza targets following border flare-ups Raids hit Hamas sites after two shooting at tacks on Israeli troops earlier in the day, including one in which bullet struck officer’s helmet By JUDAH ARI GROSS 2 2 January 2019, 11:03 pm 2 569 shares An explosion in the northern Gaza Strip from Israeli airstrikes lights up the nigh t sky on January 22, 2019. (Screen capture: Facebook) An explosion in the northern Gaza Strip from Israeli airstrikes li ghts up the night sky on January 22, 2019. (Screen capture: Facebook) The Israel Air Force launched airstrikes against m ultiple Hamas targets in the northern Gaza Strip on Tuesday night, following two border clashes earlier in the day, incl uding one in which a sniper shot an IDF officer in his helmet, causing light injuries, the army said. The target of the strike was said to be a Hamas building in the Beit Lahia area of northern Gaza, according to Palestinian media. The stru cture was reportedly hit by multiple missil

Israeli jets strike northern Gaza targets following border flare-ups

Raids hit Hamas sites after two shooting attacks on Israeli troops earlier in the day, including one in which bullet struck officer’s helmet

By JUDAH ARI GROSS 22 January 2019, 11:03 pm 2

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An explosion in the northern Gaza Strip from Israeli airstrikes lights up the night sky on January 22, 2019. (Screen capture: Facebook)An explosion in the northern Gaza Strip from Israeli airstrikes lights up the night sky on January 22, 2019. (Screen capture: Facebook)

The Israel Air Force launched airstrikes against multiple Hamas targets in the northern Gaza Strip on Tuesday night, following two border clashes earlier in the day, including one in which a sniper shot an IDF officer in his helmet, causing light injuries, the army said.

The target of the strike was said to be a Hamas building in the Beit Lahia area of northern Gaza, according to Palestinian media. The structure was reportedly hit by multiple missiles. There were no immediate reports of injuries.

The Israel Defense Forces said the raids targeted “a number of terror targets in a military base belonging to the Hamas terror group in the northern Gaza Strip.”

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The Israeli military did not indicate who it believed fired the shots, but said it held Hamas responsible for the violence along the border on Tuesday as the terror group has ruled Gaza since taking control of the enclave in 2007 by ousting the West Bank-based Palestinian Authority.

“The IDF is prepared and ready to act against any terrorist action from the Gaza Strip and is determined to defend the citizens of the State of Israel,” the army said in a statement.

Hamas accused Israel of escalating the situation, saying it was “fully responsible” for the uptick in violence.

“The valiant resistance will not allow our people’s blood to be used as fuel for Israeli election campaigns, and it possesses the will and means to safeguard our great people’s blood and interests,” said Hamas spokesman Fawzi Barhoum, referring to the Knesset elections in April.

The airstrikes came amid a significant increase in violence along the Gaza border Tuesday.

Earlier in the day, shots were fired at Israeli troops stationed along the security fence across from the northern Strip. In response, an IDF tank destroyed a nearby observation post belonging to the Gaza-ruling Hamas terror group.

The helmet of an IDF officer that was hiy by a sniper bullet during a riot along the Gaza border on January 22, 2019. (Courtesy)

On Tuesday afternoon, during a small riot next to the border, another sniper opened fire at a group of soldiers positioned along the border, hitting a Paratroopers Brigade company commander in his helmet, causing light injuries.

Then an IDF tank fired on a Hamas observation post. In that case, however, three Hamas members who had just left the structure were hit by the blast, killing one of them and wounding the other two.

The injured IDF officer was taken to Beerhsheba’s Soroka Medical Center for treatment. A cut on his head was bandaged, and he was released hours later, the hospital said.

Volume 90%

In addition to the airstrikes, Israel also halted a previously approved $15 million transfer to the Gaza-ruling Hamas terrorist group from Qatar because of the violence.

“Following the recent incidents in the Gaza Strip, and with consultation with security officials, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu decided not to allow the transfer of Qatari money to the Gaza Strip tomorrow,” an Israeli diplomatic official said, speaking on condition of anonymity.

A Hamas official told The Times of Israel that “Netanyahu’s decision to prevent their entry is a crime that will push Gaza toward an explosion.”

Qatar had been preparing to transfer $15 million in payouts to Hamas civil servants in the Gaza Strip. This was the third such installment for the terror group to be approved by the Israeli government, in what officials see as a pressure-release valve intended to calm unrest and ease a potential humanitarian crisis in the beleaguered Strip.

The transfer of the funds to Hamas, which calls for the destruction of the Jewish state, is widely unpopular in Israel. The announcement by the diplomatic official was a rare admission by the government that it had indeed approved the payments.

The funds were expected to be transferred on Wednesday, after they were initially stalled by Israel last week in response to another flare up in cross-border violence, Qatar’s envoy to the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip, Mohammed al-Emadi, told the Reuters news service.

Since March, Palestinians have been holding regular protests on the border. Israel has accused Gaza’s Hamas rulers of using the demonstrations as a cover for attacks on troops and attempts to breach the security fence.

Israel has demanded an end to the violent demonstrations along the border in any ceasefire agreement.

Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

Israeli director Guy Nattiv’s short film ‘Skin’ gets Oscar nod Movie exploring gang war that breaks out after black man smiles at a white child has since been developed into full-length feature about white supremacists By TO I STAFF and AP 22 January 2019, 6:32 pm 0 7 shares Guy Nattiv (Screen capture: YouTube) Guy Nattiv (Screen capture: YouT ube) Israeli filmmaker Guy Nattiv’s short film “Skin” was nominated Tuesday for the Oscar for best live action sho rt film. The film, which was directed by Nattiv, is about a gang war in a small town that breaks out after a black man s miles at a white child at a supermarket. Nattiv wrote “Skin” with Sharon Maymon, who is also from Israel. Get The Ti mes of Israel’s Daily Edition by email and never miss our top stories FREE SIGN UP The 20-minute film has been developed into a full-length feature by the same name, also directed by Nattiv. Nattiv grew up in Israel and now lives in Los Ang eles, The other Oscar nominees for best

Israeli director Guy Nattiv’s short film ‘Skin’ gets Oscar nod

Movie exploring gang war that breaks out after black man smiles at a white child has since been developed into full-length feature about white supremacists

By TOI STAFF and AP22 January 2019, 6:32 pm 0

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Guy Nattiv (Screen capture: YouTube)Guy Nattiv (Screen capture: YouTube)

Israeli filmmaker Guy Nattiv’s short film “Skin” was nominated Tuesday for the Oscar for best live action short film.

The film, which was directed by Nattiv, is about a gang war in a small town that breaks out after a black man smiles at a white child at a supermarket.

Nattiv wrote “Skin” with Sharon Maymon, who is also from Israel.

Get The Times of Israel’s Daily Edition by email and never miss our top storiesFREE SIGN UP

The 20-minute film has been developed into a full-length feature by the same name, also directed by Nattiv.

Nattiv grew up in Israel and now lives in Los Angeles,

The other Oscar nominees for best live action short film are “Detainment” by Vincent Lambe, “Fauve” by Jeremy Comte, “Marguerite” by Marianne Farley and “Mother” by Rodrigo Sorogoyen.

In other categories, the biopic “RBG” about US Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg was nominated for best documentary feature and Poland’s Pawel Pawlikowski, whose grandmother was killed at Auschwitz, was nominated for best director for “Cold War.” Rachel Weisz was nominated for best supporting actress in “The Favourite.”

Israel’s entry for foreign-language film, “The Cakemaker,” was eliminated from contention last year.

Alfonso Cuaron’s “Roma” and Yorgos Lanthimos’ “The Favourite” each received 10 nominations in the 91st Academy Awards, while two dominant but contentious Hollywood forces — Netflix and Marvel — each scored their first best picture nomination.

Though many expected “A Star Is Born,” Bradley Cooper’s tear-inducing revival of one of Hollywood’s most oft-remade show-business myths, to top nominations, Cooper was surprisingly overlooked as director and the academy instead put its fullest support behind a pair of smaller films by international directors.

With “Roma,” Netflix has scored its first best picture nomination, something the streaming giant has dearly sought. Cuaron tied the record for most decorated Oscar nominee ever for one film with four nods for his black-and-white, memory-drenched masterpiece. The Mexican-born director earned nods for direction, cinematography, original screenplay and best picture. Only Orson Welles (“Citizen Kane”) and Warren Beatty (“Reds,” ”Heaven Can Wait”) have landed four.

Actress Rachel Weisz (YouTube screenshot)

Lanthimos’ period romp “The Favourite” resounded most in the acting categories thanks to its trio of actresses: Olivia Colman in the best actress category, and Weisz and Emma Stone in supporting.

Along with “Roma” and “The Favourite,” the nominees for best picture are: “A Star Is Born,” ”Green Book,” ”Black Panther,” ”BlacKkKlansman,” ”Bohemian Rhapsody” and “Vice.”

Spike Lee was nominated for his first directing Oscar 30 years after a writing nod for 1989’s “Do the Right Thing.” Notably left out of the category was Bradley Cooper, whose “A Star Is Born” landed eight nominations, including best actress for Lady Gaga, but was overlooked for Cooper’s direction. The other nominees were Lanthimos, Cuaron, Pawel Pawlikowski (“Cold War”) and Adam McKay (“Vice”).

In this photo from February 24, 2016, Rick Roberts works on touching up a base amid statues of the Oscar awaiting finishing up in Hollywood, California. (Frederic J. Brown/AFP)

The nominees for best actor are Bradley Cooper, Christian Bale (“Vice”), Willem Dafoe (“At Eternity’s Gate”), Rami Malek (“Bohemian Rhapsody”) and Viggo Mortensen (“Green Book”).

Up for best actress are Yalitza Aparicio (“Roma”), Glenn Close (“The Wife”), Olivia Colman (“The Favourite”), Lady Gaga and Melissa McCarthy (“Can You Ever Forgive Me?”).

The nominees for best supporting actress are Amy Adams (“Vice”), Marina De Tavira (“Roma”), Regina King (“If Beale Street Could Talk”), Emma Stone (“The Favourite”) and Rachel Weisz (“The Favourite”). Tavira was something a surprise, while Claire Foy of “First Man” was left out.

Up for best supporting actor are: Mahershala Ali (“Green Book”), Adam Driver (“BlacKkKlansman”), Sam Elliott (“A Star Is Born”), Richard E. Grant (“Can You Ever Forgive Me?”) and Sam Rockwell (“Vice”). Notably snubbed was Timothy Chalamet (“Beautiful Boy”).

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Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: REFENCE MATERIAL FOR SANJAY DUTT AND OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO AND IS YOSSI COHEN THERE ? – 1985 IS A SPECIAL ITEM SONG CALED JAAN KI BAZI – MEANS? WELL IT MEANS – THE ROULETTE LIKE THE RUSSHIAN ROULLETE OR LIFE AND SOME CALL IT LAL GULAB INDIAN CUISINE ESTBALISHED 1985

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From: Streak <notifications>
Date: Wed, Jan 23, 2019 at 8:34 AM
Subject: Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: REFENCE MATERIAL FOR SANJAY DUTT AND OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO AND IS YOSSI COHEN THERE ? – 1985 IS A SPECIAL ITEM SONG CALED JAAN KI BAZI – MEANS? WELL IT MEANS – THE ROULETTE LIKE THE RUSSHIAN ROULLETE OR LIFE AND SOME CALL IT LAL GULAB INDIAN CUISINE ESTBALISHED 1985
To: <ajayinsead03>


Someone just viewed your email with the subject: Fwd: Someone just viewed: Fwd: Someone just viewed: REFENCE MATERIAL FOR SANJAY DUTT AND OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO AND IS YOSSI COHEN THERE ? – 1985 IS A SPECIAL ITEM SONG CALED JAAN KI BAZI – MEANS? WELL IT MEANS – THE ROULETTE LIKE THE RUSSHIAN ROULLETE OR LIFE AND SOME CALL IT LAL GULAB INDIAN CUISINE ESTBALISHED 1985
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People on thread: YONI NETANYAHU OLGA BLOG POST BY EMAIL
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Location: singapore, ?

eyJlbWFpbF9pZCI6IlJNX3lBUUVBQVdoNHFrMkE5UExEcExWMF9HWm9wdz09In0=

Someone just viewed: Re: FROM OLGA – LESSONS IN ENGLISH AND WHAT NOT DTO DO, IN MATHS AND FRENCH -> HONEY -> IS IT CALLED DOB PLUS A PRIME NUMBER = 1987 ?

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Someone just viewed: SO.. NOW WE KNOW JESUS H CHRIST, U KNOW H FOR HOLY AND THOSE BORN ON DECEMEBER 25, AND WITH NAME : WHAT? – YEAH WHATS YOUR NAME ?:)

OH

VIETNAM

IS IT FROM SAIGON ?

[1]

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[2]
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From: Streak <notifications>
Date: Wed, Jan 23, 2019 at 7:43 AM
Subject: Someone just viewed: SO.. NOW WE KNOW JESUS H CHRIST, U KNOW H FOR HOLY AND THOSE BORN ON DECEMEBER 25, AND WITH NAME : WHAT? – YEAH WHATS YOUR NAME ?:)
To: <ajayinsead03>


Someone just viewed your email with the subject: SO.. NOW WE KNOW JESUS H CHRIST, U KNOW H FOR HOLY AND THOSE BORN ON DECEMEBER 25, AND WITH NAME : WHAT? – YEAH WHATS YOUR NAME ?:)
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People on thread: YONI NETANYAHU OLGA BLOG POST BY EMAIL
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eyJlbWFpbF9pZCI6IlJNX3lBUUVBQVdoNGVfTGNwaC1uRWEzWlNSSkpRUT09In0=

FROM OLGA SHULMAN LEDNICHENKO TO PRIME MINISTER BIBI NETANYAHU -> SO? WELL SO DID ME JUSTIFY MY STIPEND I GOT FOR 2 YEARS WHILE WORKING AT IDF MISTER PRIME MINISTER ? : WELL YOUR WELCOME ? AND PS: U KNOW WHEN I JOINED IDF ISSRELI DEFENSE FORCES ? – THE ANSWER EQAUL TO : WHEN I LAST MET YONI NETANYAHU VIA AIR FRANCE AND AEROFLOAT IN PARIS TO MOSCOW AND TEL AVIV AND U KNOW WHEN I LEFT IDF MISTER PRIME MINISTER ? – ? U KNOW YEAR 2006 HE CAME FROM LUCKNOW TO PLUS NINE SEVEN 2

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FROM AJAY TO BIBI -> U UNDERSATND ? WELL U KNOW – FROM NOT PETAK TIKVA OR CASSA REAH BUT FROM VORKUTA – SO, THATS MY GULAB FROM THE GULAG BIBI

 

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Daniel PLEASE SEE THIS FOR YARD AND CLEANING STUFF

From: Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03>
Date: Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 9:44 PM
Subject: Re: Daniel PLEASE SEE THIS FOR YARD AND CLEANING STUFF
To: Jerry Philips <jerrytphilips>

let me marinate on the causes.. If its water pressure then – only Shiva or Indra can help

however, if its just teflon – then maybe if not Daniel at least we can try asking Benny G ..

about the half bath – ok – lets have daniel look at it – AFTER he gets done with all the stuff { fyi – he does have an appointment today by 1 pm or 2 pm – so u know} .. If not, Daniel then we have two options coming soon

[a] you know those guys who would arrive from alberto’s appliances – they – SHOULD be able to know – how to fix this one – u MAY wanna says ” yo amigos, can u and will u and for how much will u fix this toilet tank that i have at my half bath “

[b] option 2 – when Benny Gomez comes on Friday – whatever Daniel cant fix – have Benny take a stab at it

the half bath i now is a 10 – 20 minute job – MAX

ps: Jerry, its a hassle yes when and if its regular – but one time – gig – is NO BIG DEAL what i mean is – that – I CAN AND WILL be awake and CAN AND WILL chase down people back and forth – and can and will do that and DID DO THAT – SINCE APRIL 4, MEANING FOR 8 DAYS now – and thats OK – .. i cant however, yes – be awake or spend that much time AFTER i get done with all this..

ps2: in a way its helpful, whatever you are sending because a least i KNOW now and get to know – WHAT is the problem, or what ARE the problems and what we can get done and what we cant.. etc etc

ps 3: Once we get done with this list – that u gave – i will prepare by amending a document which we have for and given to each and every tenant since 2005 at least – … and then u will see – we can get things done IF needed effortlessly. i will be fair to the tenants and to JB – BOTH – not juts one person. Yes you are the first tenant who is that meticulous – yes – well actually second, but u are also the FIRST INDIAN AMERICAN OR INDIAN ORIGIN AMERICAN..

Its in the DNA of Indians to be EXACT, AND THOROUGH – I have my theory about it – which i sahred with Barack and Bubba, Barack laughs at it, Michelle Thinks about it – Bubba – loves it and Hilalry ji FOLLOWS ME when and IF i say something about JEWS AND RUSSIANS AND INDIANS

so, if u need anything – maybe next time any POLITICAL HELP OR ADVISE – HAULLER AT MY WAY :)

I have a PHD in 3 people : Obama Clinton and Netanyahu and a MASTERS IN rUSSIAN and EMERITUS FELLOWSHIP in JEWS peoples and CATHOLICS :)

so, u know, i hope you guys win in 2018 – i have my theory on that – but Barack doesn’t agree and thinks i am anti brown peoples :, which i am not. I just think IDENTITY POLITICS IS bad and sad and wrong.

sig?u=a_mishra

On Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 9:20 PM, Jerry Philips <jerrytphilips> wrote:

Thank you!

Both sinks have the problem of water leaking and shooting out the faucet and on to the floor. My guess is that this is in part due to the remarkably high water pressure in the house. I think that is also affecting the shower faucets and causing them to leak as well. The water hits the pipes hard and is quite loud.

The water in the 1/2 bath toilet runs after flushing. I lift the tank lid and raise the float arm to stop it. It may just ned a simple adjustment but I haven’t had time to try and fix it yet.

We really do not mean to cause such a hassle for you – we really appreciate all your help!

On Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 10:28 AM, Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03> wrote:

quick update: spoke with Daniel, explained him everything. He is few minutes away from the house –

10:28 AM
Wednesday, April 11, 2018 (CDT)
Time in Austin, TX

sig?u=a_mishra

On Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 8:39 PM, Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03> wrote:

current time is 10 am ,, has Daniel arrived ?

10:08 AM
Wednesday, April 11, 2018 (CDT)
Time in Austin, TX

sig?u=a_mishra

On Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 8:38 PM, Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03> wrote:

https://photos.google.com/share/AF1QipO02ZaayabAVClH0mLOdjRjJb_ArdGE8BQ7ohaxVQl0ymiuXHFhZw_-04BdVMTJsQ?key=Rk9zV3o2Q25KVXdObVpIc0ZvQ3M4TzBPRjV2Ukl3

sig?u=a_mishra

On Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 8:37 PM, Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03> wrote:

thanks for the videos – ok – questions and comments

[1] location double sink vanity, subject water – sub location sinks – and faucets in double sink vanity on masetr bath –

it the water – sputtering – happening only ine ONE of the faucets or both ?

answer to that, will help me diagnose like sherlock holmes if u know what i mean ?

[2]

[3[

for 2 and 3 also please see attached and confirm specially on the 3rd – half bath piece, i mean i saw the video, but i didnt see any problem..

 

 

On Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 8:20 PM, Jerry Philips <jerrytphilips> wrote:

Ajay,

Thank you for all your help.  Please see below the link to the videos from the bathrooms:

ajayinsead03> wrote:

Fyi: Your more welcome to ask Daniel to clean the 2 remaining closets { there are 3 closets: one got left, he would do one today } and any window sills and

the Fridge – yes – again – if you want -{ in india, we clean the fridge every week: and its about time for the weekly cleaning – your choice, your call}
and the Stove – again or now – whatever be the case
plus – any and ALL things you mentioned thus far.

 

On Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 7:13 PM, Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03> wrote:

Good Morning Folks

Thanks Jerry for the email.

So, to add to the list – we have the following Scope of things to deal with:

[1] Clean a closet downstairs.

[2] Clean the master shower/bath – its on the second floor.

[3] Move whatever box having the some curtains etc is there at the house – I would prefer that it be moved to the Utility room – second preference would be – UNDERNEATH – the STEPS – from that door by the carport to the upstairs – and 3rd preference would be to move that in the shed. I will let Jerry decide. each of them is fine by me.

Now, regarding the shower in the first floor bath and sinks in the master bathroom vanity on the second floor:

[a] If you can, or would, make small – quick – 2 minute video – that would give me an idea and i would ask Daniel and see if this can be fixed. All i am looking for is – the Amplitude and Frequency of the issue. From what you described – unless i am mistaken or misreading – the Frequency of this – sink leak by the angled faucets is activated when and if the sink is ON – and stops when its OFF.

And, if I were to guess – the amplitude – would be – a few drops of extra water – or a stream of water – technically a laminar flow or an ADIABATIC flow – is what I am looking at ? – the video will tell me which one it is.

I can be 99 % sure – that it laminar flow and that ista stream that runs from the washer and flows through. chances are – this – CANT be fixed – because i KNOW we tried this one and the manufacturer responded that ” yes. we have this design stuff – i guess you can call it a flaw”

These sinks and the whole master bathroom vanity is new – all the plumbing etc is new and was installed – { all new parts from speciality store} in August, 2017 .

so, IF its the same laminar flow of a stream – then it cant be fixed. In mechanical engineering we can it – design variances and fits and tolerances

At any rate – Daniel can have a look at it – but i don’t think { i will be happy to be wrong} – that this can be fixed, because? well because we already tried this – WHEN we installed – then the house was vacant.. i got a video from the contractor – named Augustine. we called the manufacturer he said – after explaining us engineering he said – its not a big problem , but if it is for u – and its a known problem, unfortunately u gotta have to live with it ..

If you cant send a video, its fine. i think this a known unknown – that we have to live with and cant be fixed. That said Daniel is more than welcome to have a look at it.

[b] The bath shower Faucet DownStairs :

I dont know for sure but i can check with JB and get back with u on this one – I think the shower faucet itself may be new – IF changed in 2014 august – but is the stream coming when ON or ALWAYS ?

Daniel – please look at this one – and let me know what this is – You can speak contractor language and i can translate that from my engineering :) and hopefully we can fix this..

That said – in both these shower ard sink issue – I think, i can safely ascertain – that the damage – in terms of Dollars { reflected in extra water bill} wont be more than even $3 over the course of a 12 month lease .

With Regards to the clothes washer at the Utility Room:

This wont be an issue, anymore.. as Alberto’s appliances are putting a new washer and dryer .. i guess today itself between 4 and 5 pm – AND they – means alberto;s staff and crew – have been instructed to move this one – in the corner by the Utility room and you have already spoken with Benny Gomez who will come – Friday ? and pick this washer up – after that its Benny’s problem, what works and doenst work in this one..

Dead Bolt on the Second Floor Front Door:

yeah i have asked Daniel to look at it . Also, Benny Gomez, did this one and i think both people can fix this – easily

Please bring up any other issue that u may have and lets get them ALL.. and we can decide which ones we can get fixed and which find their place in the moving condition form to reflect the ” AS IS” mentioned in the lease.

i really appreciate this Jerry. As its helps everyone save time.. I prefer everything in one go..

sig?u=a_mishra

On Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 6:30 PM, <jerrytphilips> wrote:

Good morning,

The wood filler and spirits are under the sink. I cleaned the fridge so we could use it as well as swept up all of the closets/floors/ dirty corners so we could move our stuff in. I didn’t get to clean one closet downstairs as the movers had already placed boxes in there. There are some curtain rods and shelf materials in that closet as well that I think we can place in the storage shed. The master shower/bath still needs a proper cleaning.

We found a couple of other issues that we can show Daniel like the sink faucets in the master bath leak when they are on and the bath/shower faucets downstairs. The hearing dry function of the dishwasher is also not working but these things do not need immediate action like the door lock and wood/nails in the yard.

Thanks!

Jerry

On Apr 11, 2018, at 7:34 AM, Ajay Mishra <ajayinsead03> wrote:

thanks cool. no problemo

I just want to write this below – regarding the materials you may need :

[1] For Cleaning :

– There should be – two boxes there at least – 2 in the house – Unless the previous cleaning crew people took that away, there was a box of mineral spirits and a box of wood filler. i had asked the cleaning crew gig people to store that in the house – preferably underneath the Kitchen Sink -cabinet on the 2nd floor of the house at 208 Westhaven drive 78746.

Now, I am in india – but the tenants are IN the house – the westhaven house – so, please lets prepare a check list of all the stuff you may need for cleaning the house part and lets check that we have them at the house or – we may have to buy them. or u can bring some that you have at your house – All ways and Either or is fine..

– now, i went in here – and read this

  • It may seem obvious, but remove all food before starting.

  • Take out all removable parts, such as shelves and drawers. Fill a basin with warm water and regular dishwashing soap and leave these parts to soak before wiping and rinsing.

  • Wipe all surface areas either with commercial wipes, or with a combination of dishwashing soap and warm water.

  • Use a microfibre cloth or a good quality sponge – these cleaning tools will not fall apart and leave little particles behind in the fridge.

  • For stubborn stains, mix a small amount of baking soda with a little water to produce a thick paste. Apply the paste to the stain and leave for an hour before wiping with a damp sponge or cloth. The baking soda should loosen the stain, making it easy to wipe away.

ok, so, if my Maths is right for the Fridge – you need

[a] Regular dishwashing Soap –

[b] Commercial wipes – I never bought them -and if i did i dont know what they are – so.. if u can please get whatever the heck this item is and i will pay for that

[c]

microfibre cloth or a good quality sponge

so, soap plus commericial wipe plus microfiber cloth or good quality sponge is what we need for fridge cleaning

ok, so, please buy them and bill me .. PLEASE DONT FORGET

ok, now, so, confirm with jerry that we have that mineral spirits in the house – if not – please get something that would do the job.. u said u may have some at your hosue with you..

here is the website that says HOW to -> https://www.cleanipedia.com/me-en/bathroom-kitchen/how-should-i-clean-my-refrigerator

how to get the stove clean – stove i think is not mentioned in the 15 item – but oven is –

so, i think this one is easy and u have the materials ?

ok THEN – unless i forgot something LAST ITEM YOU MAY NEED is – RAGS –

It looks like, as far as materials go you would need :

[1] warm water and soap – like liquid soap – we have water at the house, but the tenants just moved in so i cant guarantee that they have liquid soap, Your more than welcome to buy or get one while on your way – or just ask tenants, if u can use theirs, if they have,

[2] Commercial Wipes and Microfiber Cloth – please buy them if you dont have it with you and just bill me. Daniel.

[3] Good Quality Sponge : but one from any of the many local stores – if you will and bill the landlord, works fine with me as well.. or u can get yours or ask tenant.

[4] Rags – BROOM – and a DUST PAN : and if u dont have dust pan or don’t like dust pans, like i don’t. Juts use the leaf blower INSIDE – { that’s HOW i used to clean the house, when i lived there :) – or just use tissue paper to wipe off or pick the dead bugs and what not }

[5] a HAMMER { for the nails and for the pallets in the yard }

[6] The leaf Blower – which is new – just arrived yesterday afternoon – so, it would or should work and the tenants will give you that. BUT – you NEED TO GET YOUR CORD or cords

Ok man. Thats about all i can think, u can need and i just wanted to remind you, because if u forget something then – making the trip, standing in the checkout line isnt that interesting to me at least.

hope this helps

Now, after this I will :

[a] call you to check this email and remind you to bring all the items you may or will need for the gig today that i guess starts around 10 AM CST – at my house

and

[b] For your protection and for tenant and landlord satisfaction and peace of mind, Create a document in word and in pdf which you can print – it would be a list – like as in scope of all that would comprise and conclude this gig today at 10 AM CST – start time – and HOW will be DEFINE – closure and conclusion and when we can deem to have done the job – and i hate to sue the definitionally challenged word – satisfactorily . Its situational, its contextual – its personal, its individual. But i will do MY BEST.

current time in your nation called texas is below

i need an hour – max – to write and include – a document that stipulates – the gig and then a place hodler where in u can get the customer’s sign off and that would be the highlight of my day today and then i would go to bed after that

7:32 AM
Wednesday, April 11, 2018 (CDT)
Time in Austin, TX

sig?u=a_mishra

On Wed, Apr 11, 2018 at 7:32 AM, Daniel Campbell <danielcampbell111> wrote:

Sorry for missed phone calls I was taking a nap

ISARELI ELECTIONS – BIBI NETANYAHU BENNY GANTZ AND WELL SIARELIES – +972 FIRST IS FINE BUT ISARELIS FIRST MEANS – MORE THAN HAMAS ITS HARD TO EXPLIAN BUT ISARELI SECURITY ISNT JUST ABOUT HAMAS AND HEZBOLLAH ONLY – AND EVEN IF ITS JUST HAMAS AND HEZBOLLAH – IT REQUIRES GLOBAL REGARDS OLGA

ITS HARD TO EXPLIAN BUT ISARELI SECURITY ISNT JUST ABOUT HAMAS AND HEZBOLLAH ONLY –

 

THE ANALYSIS :

[1] THIS EQUAL TO HAS TWO ITEM WORDS- FIRST – ISRAEL FIRST

[2] HOPE – 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hg3j7OQwY5I

WHY ? WHY ISAREL FIRST – LEMME GUESS WHY

[A]

SO BIBI SILENT ON GAZA AND DOING WINE NOT BEER ITEM SONG -!!! HMM – SO IS BIBI TRYING TO BE STATESMAN NOW ? – HE MEANS – SO, ALL THIS FREQUENT FLYER MILE COLLECTION FROM UZBEKISTAN AND OMAN AND INDIA AND RUSSHIA AND WHAT NOT – IS THIS AN ITEM SONG TO GELL CHAD AND GHANA AND UN AND USA AND WHAT NOT?

TRANSLATION : BIBI IS PLAYING GLOBAL VECTORS IN HIS HEAD WHILE , WE ARE SUFERING FROM THAM GAZA ROCKETS -FLYING THRU OUR HEADS

[B]

HOPE ? – WELL.. HOPE IS WHAT? WINE? – AND IS THIS HOPE AND STUFF – COPY RIGHT OF YAIR LAPID AND WHO ALL IN PLUS 972 ? –  BECAUSE BIBI IS ABOUT SECURITY NOT HALAL MEAT SHOPS LET ALONE CURRY OR BORSCHT – BECAUE BORSCHT AND VODKA USUALLY MEANS LIEBERMAN –  WELL.. BUT HOPE IS REQUIRED – BECAUSE – OF THE LEFT – VOTER LISTS – SO, THATS WHY THE WORD HOPE AND – BAZOOKA FIRE IN LESS THAN 2 MINUTE VIDEO .. 

AND EVEN IF ITS JUST HAMAS AND HEZBOLLAH – IT REQUIRES GLOBAL

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=Zhtl4corBew]

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=dFGWJ1vIf44]

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=Z1ct-meb6U0]

HOPE – THAT ONE DAY THE LARGEST DEMORACY AND THE SECOND MOST POPULUS NATION IS AN ALLY OF PLUS 972

HOPE THAT ONE DAY – WE CAN DEAL WITH RUSSHIA ALSO NOT JUST BE DEPENDENT ON USA

HOPE THAT THROUGHOUT THE SILK ROUTE – WE HAVE SOMEONE WHERE IN WE DONT CHECK IN A HOTEL BUT CAN STAY AT A HOME ?

HOPE THAT WE HAVE ALLIES AND FRIENDS EVEN IN OMAN NOT JUST AN OBLAST IN PLUS 7 PLUS 084

YEAH HOPE IS NOT A BAD WORD , YES

..

ITS COMPLICATED YES

ANYWAY SO ON ONLY THE TOUGH WIN ? OR IS IT SPET ONLY THE STRONG WIN ? OR IS IT MEANS TO WIN U HAVE TO BE STRONG ?

WELL, COME TO THE TOWER FOR STRONG – ITEM SONG

The Entebbe Rescue (Jonathan Operation) – Yoni

 

www.yoni.org.il/en/jonathan.php?p=3

(Excerpted from the “Afterword” of The Letters of Jonathan Netanyahu by Ma’ariv ... As the plane landed on the tarmac, the Ugandans in the main control tower …

FROM OLGA SHULMAN TO PRIME MINISTER BIBI NETANYAHU – AND TO HIS OFFICE – SEPCIALLY WHATS HIS NAME – DAN LAHAV – HELLO DAN AND BIBI – HERE IS MY PREDICTIONS FOR ISRAELI ELECTIONS – SO, HME STATE FOR PLUS 972 THE FOLLOWING ITEMS : 1 BENNY GANTZ WILL NOT TAKE THE BIBI VOTER SHARE : BUT HE WOULD CARVE FROM THE REST – U KNOW WHO THAM REST – THE DERBIS FROM THE LEFT – AND BTW, WHERE IS HABAYIT YEHUDI NAFTALIA – BEAUTIFUL HOMES ME IS PARTY ITEM SONG PERSON? – OK THAN – SO: TYES, BENNY GANTZ WILL NOT GET THE BIBI VOTER TO SWITCH ROR SLIP – NOW THE QUETSION FOR AMERICANS IS -? – WHY? – AND THIS IS IF U ARE CONCEPTUAL AND ABSTRACT – THEN U CAN RELATE TO WHATS IN USA ELECTION MENU AS WELL

NOW, AFTER ELECTIONS:

OK PRIME MINISTER BIBI :)

I HAVE TO SAY SOMETHING FOR NESHER AND ALIYAH PERSONES – SPECIALLY – FROM + 7 AND + 380 AND U KNOW PM ISAREL INCLUDES PM OF NESHER AND HOLON TOO OR IS IT JUST PM FOR MODI AND PUTIN AND POLISH PRIME NMINITERS – AND U KNOW THAM ESTE LAUDER AND WHATS HIS ANEM ARBBI SHUMELEY AND – YEAH SHAS AND STUFF ?

:)

BTW SO U KNOW – HOTMAN HAS AN ARMY OF PERSONS BIBI IN ISARELIES AND NESEHR AND HOLON SPECIALLY

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=Ptor0jBTwDM]

:

WANT A SAMPLE BIBI OF NESHER ?

OH WELL – YEAH BIBI NETNYAHU IS WITH ALL THAM . AND GIDEON SAAR WAS IN NESHER – ITS ALL ABOUT – U KNOW HOW IT IS – WHEN U ALIYAH – AND U KNOW -:
OK I WILL SPARE U FROM THAT – BUT FTER ELECTONS – WHEN U SUBMIT YOUR LIST TO THE PRESDIENT WHATS HIS ANEM RIVLIN THAN I WILL GIVE U MY VODAK AND CURRY LIST :

THAT WOULD BE SUCH COOL –

BTW, HOTMAN – VERSUS BIBI NETANYAHU ELECTIONS – FOR THE HEAD OF BHOOTAN, CANADA, EHIPOIA, AND NOW, EVAN JAMACIA AND SIAARELIES AND NEHSER WILL BE CONDUCTED – AFTER MAY 2019 – WHEECH IS WHEN THE REAL EELCTIONS IN SIARELIES WILL HAPPEN

Yesterday’s numbers

From: Kamala Harris <info>
Date: Wed, Jan 23, 2019 at 4:03 AM
Subject: Yesterday’s numbers
To: <LEDNICHENKOOLGA>

We are the architects of the future we want.

On Day 1 of our campaign, we raised over $1.5 million with 99.9% of donations coming from small grassroots donors ready to take back the country we love.

You are invested in this fight, our country, and our ability to rise up for freedom, justice, and equality for all. Yesterday was a stunning reminder that the people are invested in OUR future.

We’ve already hit our first major milestone for this campaign — let’s show that our momentum is only growing stronger. Donate $10 today to fuel our fight forward:

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Chip in $10 now

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Another Amount

I believe in all that our democracy and country have to offer. I believe in the promise of prosperity in America. I believe in people power defending our rights and freedoms. I believe in you.

The success of our campaign starts and ends with you. Not a single penny of corporate PAC money will run this campaign — only the passion of this grassroots movement will build our path forward.

Add a donation of $10 to join the thousands of Americans who’ve already given in the last 24 hours and double down on our wave of support.

I’m thankful to have you on with us.

— Kamala Harris

PAID FOR BY KAMALA HARRIS FOR THE PEOPLE

This email was sent to LEDNICHENKOOLGA. You received this message because you are subscribed to Senator Kamala Harris’ mailing list.
You can adjust your email preferences here, or unsubscribe from receiving further emails here.

IS BARACK OBAMA AND DAVID AXELROD AND RAHM EMANUEL THERE ? -> WELL OBAMA WHITE SAID SOMETHING ABOUT PLURALITY OF VOTES AND NETANYAHU AND ALSO – IS HILLARY JI AND BUBBA THERE -? -> SEE LLLC AND WELL, HILLARY JI IS EXPERT ON THIS ITEM SONG -> WELL, DID THAM – IN 2005 LEAVE GAZA ? AND IS JOHN KERRY THERE? -> WELL, U KNOW : L L C : LEFT LABOR AND CENTER – LEFT IS LOST – AND IS RUDDERLESS MISSILE WITHOUT A SOUL AND LABOR -? WELL LABOR IS ALMOST GONE – AND U KNOW CENTER AND LISTS ? – WELL WELCOME TO PLUS 972 BARACK – Did Netanyahu challenger Benny Gantz really kill 1,364 ‘terrorists’ in Gaza? Haaretz | 21.01.2019 – WHY? YEAH WHY? WELL, BIBI TRIED THE WINE NOT BEER ITEM SONG IN GAZA THATS WHY MEANS THATS BECAUSE AND SEE WHAT WE GOT

Did Netanyahu challenger Benny Gantz really kill 1,364 ‘terrorists’ in Gaza?

Haaretz | 21.01.2019

https://youtu.be/tBc3qojn-w0

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=tBc3qojn-w0&feature=youtu.be]

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=XCmWEnxIgD4&feature=youtu.be]

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=Zhtl4corBew&feature=youtu.be]

SO? WELL BUBBA, BIBI MEANS – S FOR SECURITY IN PLUS 972 IN MASLWO HEIRARCHY – AND ?

WELL, AND ECONOMY IS BETTER IN ISAREL – WHO DECIDES, WELL, POOLS SAY SO BUBBA –

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=O-4ithG_07Q]

SO BAARCK ? -> WELL, BIBI TRIED WINE – AND NWO FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MY MEMORY – WHICH ISNT PERFECT – BARACK BUT – AS FAR AS I REMMEBER BAARCK, ITS A FIRST ONE THAT BIBI IS NOW BEING ASKED OK U HAD WINE – DOD U LIKE BBER AND POTATOS AS WELL ? AND ? WELL, AND – VODKA IS THERE – TOO – U KNOW – TRY AKSING OLGA – LIKE IS LIBERMAN – SAID SOMETHING ?

WELL, BIBI – ITS A HARD ONE FOR ME – BUT CAN U CLAIM DNA – OF YONI NETANYAHU ?

IS OLYA THERE ? -BELKA – SO, MOSHE KAHLON IS ABOUT HOUSING :, SO WHAT PRICE FALT IN BAT YAAM – BECAUSE I KNOW 6 . 6 % DOWN ITS CALELD IN JERUSLAEM AND HIAFA IS UP A BIT – ? – AND WHERE IS MEHUI MEHUNA OR IS IT YEHUDI MEHUNA MARKET BELKA IN PLUS 972? IS THAM HAS ININE PORK AND VODKA THERE ?

WELL, ITS HARD THAM LISTS IN ISARELIES – ONLY HOTMAN CAN SLVE SUCH TRICKY UESTIONS, LIKE ONLY HOTMAN IS ONE WHO CAN KILL THOUSADNS OF TERRORISTEES IN SMALL MOMENTS –

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=zFQZ99gxsv8]

Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay

There are 92 named authors on the study, including scholars from Harvard, MIT, the Russian Academy of Science, t he Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleosciences in Lucknow, the Deccan College, the Max Planck Institute, the Institute for A rchaeological Research in Uzbekistan and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad. Among the co-director s of the study is geneticist David Reich, : connection between the Steppe migration and priestly caste and culture. The researchers say they found 10 out of 140 Indian groups with a higher amount of Steppe ancestry compared to Indus Valley ancestry. These two were titled “Brahmin_Tiwari” and “Brahmin_UP”. More generally groups of priestly status seem to have higher Steppe ancestry, suggesting those with this mixture may have had a central role in spreading Vedic cultu re. The Out-of-India theory is now even more unlikely, at least at the genetic level. SO, WHERE DID BRAHMINS COME FROM OLGA? AND WHAT ABOUT KAMALA HARRIS ELIZABETH WARREN AND OBAMA CLINTON AND OTHER DNA – ? LIKE FROM WHERE?

[youtube http://youtube.com/w/?v=cTJ7KXkoRlk]

YEAH.. THE ANSWER IS :

[1] NORTH INDIAN DNA – IS FROM NOT INDIA –

[2] THE NORTH INDIAN BRAHMIN DNA IS FROM RUSSHIAN AND IRANIAN AND EUROPEAN DNA

[3] INDIA IS A MELTING POT – AND WHILE HINDU NATIONALISTS – WANT TO SAY – EUROPEANS CAME FROM INDIAN DNA, ITS NOT TRUE, BUT YES, THE SOUTH INDIAN DNA EXISTED IN INDIA – BEFORE – THE NORTH INDIAN MIX DNA FROM ARYAN TRIBES FLOWED INTO INDIA.

WHAT DOES IT MEANS ? WELL, FOR USA IT MEANS – ELIZABETH WARREN IS NATIVE INDIAN AND KAMALA HARRIS IS NON ARYAN DNA FROM INDIA

AND OLGA – LEDNICHENKO MEANS OLGA PLUS Y CHROSOME MEANS – RUSSHAIN – NOT JEW – MEANS LEDNICHENKO GENE PLUS AJAY

AND AJAY ARE INDO – EUROPEAN – DNA

– AND  BUT OLGA SHULMAN IS JEW – NAMED – WHICH MEANS THERE IS A MITOCHONDRIAL DNA – OF JEWS IN OLGA FROM HER MOM NAMED SHULMAN –

AND WELL, DID U NOTICE THAT KAMALA HARRIS’S HUSBAND AND OLGA – AND AJAY ALL HAVE CHISELED ARYAN NOSE ?

BUT OLGA AND KAMALA HARRI’S HUSBAND HAVE A NOSE THAT IS A JEW NOSE -NOT ARYAN NOSE – BUT ASHKENAZI JEW NOSE?

WHICH ISNT THE SAME AS ELIZABETH WARREN TYPE NOSE?  OR LIKE AJAY’S NOSE IS MORE CLOSE TO KAMALA HARRIS HUSBAND NOT KAMALA HARRIS’S NOSE FORM AND SHAPE?

PS: USA IS A VERY NEW NATION, ITS NOT ORIGINAL – NOT BRONZE AGE – INDIA IS BRONZE AND OTHER AGE – OLD NATION ..

NOW DNA – OF USA TRACING WOUD LEAD TO DNA OF ITS INHABITANTS, AND IF WHITE THEN ITS CALELD EUROPEAN DNA – WHICH IS – INDO – EUROPEAN DNA : JUST SO U KNOW.. WHAT MEANS DNA – TO THSOE WHO ACTUALLY KNOW THAT DNA MEANS ATCG PARIS – WHERE

A = ADENININE

T = THAIMINE

C = CYTOSIN

G = GUANIN

AND ADENIN BONDS WITH GUANINE – AND THIAMIN BONDS WITH CYTOSIN AND URASIL IS LIKE FREE – FROM BONDING IT DOESNT BOND ..

OK.. SO THATS CALLED DNA –

NOW, IS BARACK AND BUBBA THERE ? OK BARACK -> WHATS DNA MY MAN ? -BARACK IS THERE A NON Y CHROMOSEM DNA ALSO CALELD MITOCHONDRIAL DNA BARACK? AND NOW, COME IN THIS YOUR NOSE LOOKS SHARP LIKE MINE

 

ALSO – OLGA – WHATS NATIONALISM ?

– AND BUBBA – IS HILALRY JI THERE -> WELL, IT DEPENDS ON YOUR CLOCK – LIKE HOW FAR AND ALSO WHICH ONE?

LIKE Y CHROMOSOME ? ONLY

OR WILL MITOCHONDRIAL DNA COUNT SOME WHAT ?

AND ?

WELL, AND – THE LANGUAGES AND SHIT –

THAM IS CALLED – IF NOTH INDIAN -THEN – SOUTH INDIAN ISNT SAME -AS INDO EUROPEAN

AND YES RUSHSIAN AND ENGLISH AND LATIN IS INDO – EUROPEAN WHERE INDO MEANS INDIAN – U KNOW PLUS 91 NATION :

PPS : IS OLGA THERE? -> CAN U DO THESE PEOPLE A FAVOR AND EXPLAIN WHAT MEANS ARYAN AND DNA AND SWASTIKA AND NATIONALISM AND ELDERS OF ZION AND HINDU ARYAN GODS AND VISHU AND INDRA ? -SIL VOUS PLAIT -? –

U KNOW BTW – WHEN PEOPLE LIKE ME – STUDY A TOPIC – WE STUDY – BASED ON LOGIC AND SCIENCE ALSO  – JUST SO U KNOW: WELL IT USED TO BE THAT THAT WAS MY ONLY LENS, BUT YEAH – THESE FEW  PEOPLES HAPENED TO ME – AND EXPANDED BY LIMITED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOY HORIZONS..

Steppe sonsA new study squelches a treasured theory about Indians’ origins

The Aryans did not come from India; they conquered it

Print edition | Asia

Apr 5th 2018| DELHI

A CENTURY and a half ago linguists invented a new map of the world. Their research showed that a single family tree stretches its branches almost unbroken across most of Eurasia: from Iceland to Bangladesh, most people speak languages descended from “Proto-Indo-European”. The philologists had a theory to explain why Sanskrit, the ancient forebear of Hindi, has closer cousins in Europe than in south India. They speculated that at some point before the composition of the Vedas, the oldest texts of Hinduism, an Aryan people had migrated into India from the north-west, while their kin pushed westward into Europe.

Long before the Nazis dreamed of an exalted master race, imperialists seized on what some dubbed the “Aryan invasion” theory to paint Britain’s rule of India as the extension of a “natural” order. Indians, too, found a use for it. Caste-bound Hindu conservatives declared that the paler-skinned intruders must be ancestors of higher-caste Brahmins and Kshatriyas. Such talk stirred a backlash in southern India, where generally darker-skinned speakers of Dravidian languages were urged to see themselves as a separate nation.


BIORXIV/SCREENSHOT

It’s a long story.THE BURNING QUESTION(S)

Who was here first? A new study explains the origins of ancient Indians

By Rohan VenkataramakrishnanApril 3, 2018

A new paper authored by 92 scientists from around the globe that was posted online this weekend could settle some major questions about the subcontinent’s history and what that means for various theories of Indian civilisation. The paper, titled “The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia,” which still has to go through peer review, uses genetics to examine the ancestry of ancient inhabitants of the subcontinent. Below is a quick summary of what you need to know.

Who authored the study?

There are 92 named authors on the study, including scholars from Harvard, MIT, the Russian Academy of Science, the Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleosciences in Lucknow, the Deccan College, the Max Planck Institute, the Institute for Archaeological Research in Uzbekistan and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad. Among the co-directors of the study is geneticist David Reich, whose new book has inspired much recent discussion about ancient human history and racial theory.

How was the study conducted?

The researchers looked at genome-wide data from 612 ancient individuals, meaning DNA samples of people that lived millennia ago. These included samples from eastern Iran, an area called Turan that now covers Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and South Asia. Of the 612, the DNA of 362 ancient individuals was being examined for the first time. They then compared this data with that taken from present-day individuals, including 246 distinct groups in South Asia.

What were they looking for?

A lack of sufficient ancient DNA as well as proper inquiry into the matter has meant that we still do not understand how central and South Asian populations were formed. There have been various theories about this, with some very closely connected to politics both in South Asia and abroad. The Nazis, for example, helped propagate the Aryan Invasion Theory in which blue-eyed fair people swept into the Indian subcontinent on horses, conquering everyone they saw along the way. Hindutva proponents have argued the opposite altogether, what is known as the Out-of-India theory, claiming that, if anything, Indo-European languages originated in India and spread out westward from there.

DNA and other human science-based research has thrown up confusing signals in the past, with mitochondrial DNA, which is only transferred from female to female, being mostly unique to the subcontinent. This suggested that the inhabitants of India have been indigenous for thousands of years. However, Y chromosomes, which are passed from male to male, showed much more connection to West Eurasians, whether Europeans, people of the Irani plateau, or Central Asians.

Amid all this, there is the question of whom the Indus Valley people were. Were they more connected to those we now know as Dravidians, only to be pushed south by migrating Aryans? Or were they themselves Aryans, who eventually moved southward?

In many ways, the study set out to resolve this contradiction and answer some part of the question: Who are the people of the subcontinent and how did they get there?

What did they find?

The paper, which you can read in full here, builds on the genetic understanding that there were two separate groups in ancient India: Ancestral North Indians and Ancestral South Indians, or ANI and ASI. These two groups were, as Reich explains in his new book, “as different from each other as Europeans and East Asians are today.” But where do these two populations, which solidify in around 2000 BCE, come from?

There are three potential groupings that, when mixed in various combinations, could be responsible for the creation of the Ancestral North Indian and Ancestral South Indian populations.

  • The first are South Asian hunter-gatherers, described in this study as Ancient Ancestral South Indians or AASI, the oldest people of the subcontinent, related to modern-day Andaman islanders.

  • Then there are Iranian agriculturists, who were known to have come to the subcontinent, possibly bringing certain forms of cultivation of wheat and barley with them.

  • And finally, there are the Steppe pastoralists, the inhabitants of the vast Central Asian grasslands to the north of Afghanistan, who were previously known as “Aryans.”

There is another important population with South Asian connections that sits somewhere amidst these three: the Indus Valley population.

In Turan, the area north of modern-day Iran also known as the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex, there was a huge community of ancient people who seem to have little genetic connection with the inhabitants of the subcontinent. Yet the authors found three individuals from this ancient complex that did have some connection to India, specifically an ancestry mix of Iranian agriculturists and South Asian hunter-gatherers or Ancient Ancestral South Indians. This matched individuals from the Swat Valley in Pakistan, another Indus Valley site. Because the researchers didn’t have direct access to ancient DNA from India’s Indus Valley sites, the paper prefers to call them Indus Valley periphery individuals. These three individuals are key to the findings.

Where does the Indus Valley fit in?

The reason the researchers call them Indus Valley periphery individuals is because they cannot be sure that their genetic makeup is the same as most of those who lived in the Indus Valley, because they did not have access to ancient DNA from Indian sites. But for the most part they seem to use these individuals as proxies for the people of that civilisation.

The make-up of Indus Valley periphery individuals is straightforward: a mixture of Iranian agriculturists and the South Asian hunter-gatherers, or Ancient Ancestral South Indians.

The study finds that these two ancestries are also there in both of the subsequent populations, of Ancestral North Indians and Ancestral South Indians, except for a couple of key differences.

  • First Ancestral South Indians have the same basic mix: South Asian hunter-gatherers and Iranian agriculturists, with a higher amount of the former.

  • And second, importantly, Ancestral North Indians have one more ancestry mixed in that is not to be found in Ancestral South Indians: the Steppe pastoralists or, to use the old term, Aryans.

What does the paper conclude?

  • In simple terms, the mixing of Iranian agriculturists and South Asian hunter-gatherers first created the Indus Valley population.

  • Then around the 2nd millennium BCE, Steppe pastoralists moved south towards the subcontinent encountering the Indus Valley population in a manner that was likely to have caused some amount of upheaval.

  • What appears to happen afterwards is that some of the Indus Valley population moves further south, mixing more with South Asian hunter-gatherers to create the Ancestral South Indian population

  • Meanwhile, in the north, the Steppe pastoralists are mixing with the Indus Valley population to create the Ancestral North Indian grouping.

  • Most subsequent South Asian populations are then a result of further mixing between Ancestral North Indians and Ancestral South Indians.

This also means that the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation are the bridge to most extant Indian populations. “By co-analyzing ancient DNA and genomic data from diverse present-day South Asians, we show that Indus Periphery related people are the single most important source of ancestry in South Asia.”

What does all this mean?

Many things that would be hard to summarise. Journalist Tony Joseph, explains a number of implications in this piece, but here are a few main ones:

  • Some form of “Aryan” migration did take place, even if that term is not used. The introduction of Steppe pastoralists into the subcontinent might have been the way what we know as Indo-European language and culture spread, since it was the same lot of Steppe peoples that also moved West into Europe.

  • Moreover, there may be connection between the Steppe migration and priestly caste and culture. The researchers say they found 10 out of 140 Indian groups with a higher amount of Steppe ancestry compared to Indus Valley ancestry. These two were titled “Brahmin_Tiwari” and “Brahmin_UP”. More generally groups of priestly status seem to have higher Steppe ancestry, suggesting those with this mixture may have had a central role in spreading Vedic culture.

  • The Out-of-India theory is now even more unlikely, at least at the genetic level. The researchers say early Iranian agriculturists did not have any significant mixture of South Asian hunter-gatherer ancestry, “and thus the patterns we observe are driven by gene flow into South Asia and not the reverse”.

  • That said, there is some evidence of movement of the Indus Valley people out towards the Turan area, based on data from the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex. Ancestries of people there suggest some very small amount of South Asian hunter-gatherer mixture, and the presence of the three outlier individuals is believed to possibly be proof of Indus Valley inhabitants migrating to Turan.

  • The Indus Valley Civilisation ancient DNA data from the Haryana site of Rakhigarhi, which was supposed to be released last month, should add to this picture of the ancestry of South Asian populations.

Thanks in Advance,
Sincerely
Ajay